Unless your speaking about Baroque instruments, I'm assuming you're referring to making Oboes and Clarinets, and Bassoons. Flutes and saxophones are obviously made out of metal.
I am unsure of Bassoons, but I know that the preferred wood for Oboes and Clarinets is Grenadilla because it is a very, very dense, heavy, and sturdy wood that resonates well.
That said, a maple clarinet might be quite nice - I have never heard one. Grenadilla is very expensive and primarily grows in South Africa as far as I know. If you have free materials, then it can't do any harm to work with them.
If you're making reeds, you're going to need arundo donax, not bamboo as I stated earlier. Unfortunately, I don't think there is any acceptable substitute for wood as far as reeds are concerned.
If it's anything like violin-making, you're going to want to let the wood dry for at least a year, probably a couple before you were to do anything serious with it. With that said, I would definitely consult a luthier or an instrument making text for firmer answers.