No. I'm an accomplished drummer but I can't play Rock Band for toffee. Rock Band is a game, so it's designed to present a challenge to the user, one that's accessible to and enjoyable for adults and children with no musical knowledge. For this reason, it omits some things that are a big part of playing drums in an ensemble:
Volume. By this I don't just mean the dynamics written in the piece, but of each individual note: the articulation, both written and interpreted. This is something that's easy to understand on a real kit. It's harder on an electronic kit, just like how you can't learn piano just by playing a keyboard. It's not possible at all when you don't have any feedback about what your articulation sounds like.
Notation. The "scrolling dots" view that Rock Band gives you might be good for beginners, but I'm sure you understand it's unrelated to sheet music. Different publishers write their drum parts in completely different ways, and the easiest way to learn what the notation means is from experience of playing from lots of sheet music.
Counting. Not only does the "scrolling dots" view always tell you where you are, the game also makes sure you're kept busy all the time. If only composers thought the same way! Alas, unless you're playing heavy metal, or some kinds of jazz, you're likely to spend a lot of time playing 16-bar rests. In a way, this is the hardest part of drumming with a big ensemble. Everyone has their own strategies for coming in in the right place, and this is something you can only learn by playing real music with an ensemble.
Tempo negotiation. Rock Band is like playing with a metronome. It's all too common for rock and pop bands these days to use a "click track", which is practically the same thing, but most drummers have to follow a conductor, or possibly set a corporate tempo for the rest of their ensemble. This is a skill in itself: it's not just about being able to play in time, but being able to vary the tempo to suit the music and accommodate the other players (e.g. to let them breathe at the end of a phrase). I suspect that too much Rock Band would be a source of bad habits.
Of course, I'm not including here any of the things that a teacher will tell you but are hard to learn from any self-teaching method: what it should sound like, what kind of potential you have, how to set up a kit, how to sit, equipment recommendations, local bands who might want you, and so on.
Overall, I'm not advising you never to play Rock Band. One of the things you need to do to improve on kit is to put in the hours playing the same rhythms over and over again: the percussionist's equivalent of practising scales. On the harder difficulty levels, the arrangements it gives you are pretty representative of some standard rock beats. Once you've learned some technique on a real drum kit, I imagine Rock Band could help make that practise more interesting, if you have the discipline to keep using your technique, and not "cheat" by just hitting the pads any old how.
What I am advising is that if you turn up to a jazz band or another ensemble having only played Rock Band with an electric kit, you will end up looking pretty silly: maybe even worse than if you'd turned up with no experience at all.