When I asked my question on why do C7 chords contain a Bb and not a B, a user gave an example, how tonic chords transforms into a IV chord thru a dominant chord (C - C7 - F). I found this transition quite good (as a C-D7-G), so, my question is, is there anything in the music theory like some library or collection of such transitions patterns, which are used often in music?
Music theory is the study of those patterns. As you probably know, music theory is much too large a topic to be covered in a single article or list of patterns. I hope you have a chance to study music theory in detail!
Another important note: what's considered a "good" pattern depends on what style of music you're working with. For example, in the classical period or common practice era, there were very strict rules for what musicians would accept as enjoyable chord progressions and melodies. In contrast, modern jazz has an entirely different set of common chord progressions and encourages experimentation. So in addition to studying general music theory, you should acquaint yourself with the tropes most often used in the genes of music you want to work with.
EDIT: If you're looking for ways to move on to more complicated chord progressions, I have three pieces of advice:
Perhaps this would be of interest to you: http://www.hooktheory.com/analysis
This site has a database of songs and chords, and allows you to search based on a particular chord progression (see the "trends" section)
They only have 1100 songs, and don't have any with exactly your progression. There is one with a C, D, G