I think you've got a good list already, but I'd quibble with the in order part. I'd recommend splitting up your practice time to work on each of these fronts every day. So for a 1-hour practice, you might do
- Practice yesterday's scale a few times, pick a new scale and practice it. ~ 10 min.
- Put on your new favorite pop song and try to transcribe the chord progression (starting with the bass-line). ~ 10 min.
- Play around with those chords and write down a few riffs. ~ 10 min.
- Guitar Etudes. Carcassi, Sor, Aguado, Tarrega: all these guys have excellent collections of etudes which work your sight-reading, technique, and are very pretty. ~ 30 min.
For me personally, learning is most effective when it touches upon multiple interests. So to learn something about chord progressions, I start by trying to find a chord progression that I like. Then I'm much more motivated to do the hard work involved. That's also why I recommend a generous portion of just play in a practice. It should be fun.
And yes, I think reading the sheet music is essential. It opens up the whole catalog on imslp.org. But music that is edited for guitar has many helpful annotations in addition to the dots and beams. There should be the letters p, i, m, a (and rarely e) to indicate which right-hand finger to use to play the note. And there will be the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 to indicate which left-hand finger to use to fret the note. There will also be roman numerals III, IV, V, VII, to indicate where on the fret-board your left-hand index finger should be, and usually the letter C to indicate that the index finger needs to barre two or more strings at that fret. And where it's really necessary, there may be circled numbers which indicate exactly which string the note should be played on.
As you become familiar with the chord shapes on the fretboard and chord shapes in the notation, reading well-edited guitar music can be done quite easily. Actually playing the piece may be more or less challenging, though.
Edit: Keep going with the Carcassi, too. I think it's
number 4 nope: number 16 that's my favorite. It's a 2-voiced pas-de-deux in F that really works your partial barres. And Carcassi's etude number 1 basically covers everything you need to know about the C major scale and arpeggios.
Edit: The subject of rhythm has come up in the comments. For scales, you want to play in a nice even time. Perhaps practice with a metronome a few times a week to check that you're playing evenly. But learning to use your ear requires some degree of learning to trust your ear. So I would not recommend always using the metronome. It can become a crutch. Classical music should have a clearly defined sense of time. But it should not necessarily be strictly rigid to the point of, well, being unmusical. (It's difficult to precisely quantify that last point. :))
The Etudes mentioned above will exercise your understanding and playing of rhythms as well as notes and technique.
Edit: You also mention wanting something like a "full guided course". What you're looking for, then is a method-book. There are many out there. My favorite, by Celedonio Romero, is out of print. I would like to recommend the Dover edition of Fernando Sor's technique, but I think the antiquated translation would be too formidable for a beginner. On the other hand, it does give you some commentary on his exercises and etudes, which you don't have without it.
For pure technique work, you should get a copy of Steve Vai's "10-hour workout" from Guitar World back in the 90s. It's priceless. He gives you a massive amount of material to practice on. Lots of copies available through google search. If you can find a scan from the magazine (or better still, purchase a back issue), it'll be much more readable than the ascii-tab versions. While the 10-hour workout is mostly focused on electric guitar playing, it can easily be adapted for classical. Instead of down-up alternate picking, alternate between two (or more) fingers: p-i-p-i- *i-m-i-m-* p-a-p-a- *p-i-m-a-* as appropriate. Instead of bends, do glissandos: slide gracefully into the upper (lower) note.