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I trying to teach myself guitar and one song I want to perform for a friend (soon) is Akon's "Don't Matter." I can't read sheet music (but i want to learn) but i found the chord progression of the song. It is A-E-F#m-D, from some research I discovered that this is the stereotypical pop-punk chord progression I-V-vi-IV.

But I am just a beginner at guitar and have a lot of trouble with F chords due to my smallish hands and lack of experience.

I don't know any music theory but i know that the key of a song can change and it should still be recognizable as that song (though this is a mystery to me because i don't really understand the concept of key).

If I play this is the key of G the chord progression becomes G-D-Em-C which is a lot easier for me to learn and play.

I am wonder how exactly this affects how one hears the song, how does changing the key change how you hear it and perceive it? What exactly is key and why is it important?

And lastly, if i try to sing this song while playing it do i have to sing it differently if i change the key?

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This clip uses the (extremely common) progression you are playing and answers some of your questions youtube.com/watch?v=oOlDewpCfZQ –  Fergus Mar 6 at 9:14

6 Answers 6

up vote 2 down vote accepted

What does changing key mean?

Changing key means you need to sing slightly higher or lower. For example try this chord progression (La Bamba, or most of Twist and Shout, or many other songs.)

    Key of C: Chords C F G
    Key of G: Chords G C D
    Key of D: Chords D G A
    Key of A: Chords A D E
    Key of E: Chords E A B

Any of these will work. The reason the song is still recognisable is because the relationship of the notes has not changed. (they are ALL raised/lowered by the same amount.) In all cases we have three major chords, starting with the I of the scale, then the IV (5 semitones/frets up from the I) and then the V (7 semitones/frets up from the I.)

These patterns are somewhat disguised by the different fingerings you have to do to keep the chords near the nut, so try the following in order to see it more clearly (don't bother with the 1st and 5th string if you can't manage the bar chord. If you are using a pick or strumming with your thumb it's a good idea to rest a finger of your right hand on the 1st string to silence it.)

    Key of G      Chord G   C   D 

                  e-----X---3---5
                  B-----0---5---7
                  G-----0---5---7
                  D-----0---5---7
                  A-----X---3---5
                  E-----X---X---X

Now add 2 to each of the numbers in the above tab and play again. Now you're playing in A (chords A D E.)

What is a key? (a simple explanation for strummers)

There are many ways to say what key is, but one of the most useful is to identify which chords belong to each key (that doesn't mean you can't play others, but it helps you to know which are most likely, and any that don't belong will stand out to your ear as being unusual.)

Another very useful thing is the cycle of fifths, which is covered elsewhere and you should learn all you can about. It's basically a series you get by going up 7 semitones/frets at a time. Here it is in brief.

    Gb Db Ab Eb Bb F C G D A E B F# C# G# D# A# 

And here's the same thing in a zigzag (which is easier to remember because the notes on each line are consecutive, but is not as fundamental in concept.)

    Gb  Ab  Bb   C   D   E   F#  G#  A#
      Db  Eb   F   G   A   B   C#  D# 

You probably know that every major key has a relative minor key, for example C major / A minor. It's easy to pick out the chords that belong to this or any key from the cycle of fifths, according to the example below.

The root notes of the three major chords of C major fall consecutively in the circle of fifths: F C G with the C in the middle. The root notes of the three minor chords of A minor fall in a similar pattern: Dm Am Em with the A in the middle.

As I said A minor is the relative minor of C major, and additionally you will note F C G is followed immediately by D A E the cycle of fifths. So you will find that many songs use exactly this group of 6 chords F C G Dm Am Em and those are the songs in the key of C.

I hope this is useful to you in knowing which chords belong to a key.

As I say, these are the basic rules, but musicians are free to break them (and nearly every exception to the rule is well studied and has a name.) The most common change (so common I can't even call it bending the rule) is the sustitution of a minor chord by its major version.

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I write an answer, review it on my screen, it looks lovely, with nice grey boxes of text. Then I post it and SUDDENLY it interprets all my single notes as chords and starts shoving chord boxes everywhere (and not necessarily the fingering I wanted even when there were chords.) So I have edit to bastardise my nice formatting. Please Mr Computer, print what you showed me when I was editing or Leave Well Alone! –  steve verrill Mar 6 at 11:18
    
Amazing reply, thank you so much! –  user2237160 Mar 6 at 21:26
    
@user2237160 Two things: Feel free to upvote; And study that circle of fifths, the basis of harmony (supposedly invented by Pythagoras the triangle guy.) Most songs have chords selected from 6 consecutive notes on that list, three major then three minor (though the song may not use all 6 and may change some that "should be" minor into major.) If all you want to do is strum, then that set of 6 chords is a good working definition of what the key is. –  steve verrill Mar 6 at 22:05
    
I'm new to the exchange, when i tried to upvote it says i need more reputation :( Thanks for the advice! –  user2237160 Mar 6 at 23:05
    
@kartik thanks for the edit. This is basically how I wanted it to look before. How did you manage to do this without the computer misinterpreting the note names and inserting loads of unwanted chord boxes? See my first comment on this post. –  steve verrill Mar 9 at 16:27

A simple way round this is using a capo. Put it on fret 2, and use your suggested chords of G,D, Em, C. It will put you into the original recorded key. However,because the voicings of each of the chord have now changed, it will sound a little different. Not wrong, just different.

Putting the capo on fret 5, you could use E,B7,C#m and A, the troublesome one being C#m maybe. Or capo 8 and use C,G,Am,F. There's going to be a barre chord again !

Moving a song up or down by a tone or semitone will probably not cause many listeners concern - most wouldn't notice This topic has been discussed many times on this site.

The bottom line for you, I'm sorry to say, is to learn your barre chords, as then you'll be able to play any song in any key in any place on the guitar. If you're finding it really uncomfortable, get the action checked.It may be too high for you.

Yes, you will have to sing it differently, but once you start playing the new chords, your voice will adjust automatically. Don't worry about that.

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Capo is one solution, but playing open position chords on an acoustic guitar often sounds nicer than barré/capo (in my opinion), so the transposition could have a point in itself. –  Meaningful Username Mar 6 at 8:04
    
A good capo, well applied, ought to give an 'open string' sound to whichever fret it's applied, at least up to 5 or 6.One could even down tune by 2 frets and put the capo on fret 2, - would most people notice ? –  Tim Mar 6 at 8:08
    
I'm with you Tim. The first thing that crossed my mind when reading this question, was capo or tuning the guitar down by a whole step. –  MrTheBard Mar 6 at 12:50

Due to the different voicings of guitar chords in open position, a song can sound quite different when played in different keys. But if one uses a capo to change key, then this effect is lost.

Depending on the range of notes (tessitura), changing the key can also be very important for the singer. It may mean the difference between being able to sing the song and not being able! There have been several questions here on this topic.

Most people have relative pitch - they can tell what the notes of the scale are, but not what the absolute pitch is. Thus for these people, changing the key won't matter too much. There are some (lucky?) people who have absolute pitch, thus for them, changing the key will make a difference.

Of course, some people are tone deaf....

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first para - the effect may be lost, but if that capo is more than 5 or 6 frets away from the nut, the chords will not sound too similar.Maybe to the tone deaf... –  Tim Mar 6 at 16:39

G is just a whole tone down from the original key of A. That corresponds to going from fret 5 on the low E string to fret 3 on the same string. You would have to sing it one step lower in order to transpose the whole song. (Playing the song in G while singing it in A will create some interesting harmony though...)

Since it is just a whole step, this transposition will likely not be noticed by most people.

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Music is really a relative thing - if you think in terms of 4th, 5th, 3rd etc from a root note, that's how it really works. within a limit, songs played a few tones either side of their original recorded key will sound the same.

you can see this in operation in an instrument (say a guitar) - if it's not tuned to the universally agreed "concert pitch", but is in tune with itself (ie, the musical interval between the strings is as it should be) then tunes played on it will sound fine.

If you then tried to play that non-concert-pitch guitar along with another instrument which IS tuned to concert pitch, the two will mismatch and not agree on what pitch a "C" is (for example)

Lots of older records were recorded not at concert pitch- the whole band were tuned just slightly flat or sharp (because before digital stuff came out, tuning wasn't such an exact science and more open to human/technical error), but it's ok because they were all tuned with each other so it sounds fine.

The concept of "Concert pitch" is that it's an agreed frequency for certain notes to be. Eg an A is 440 cycles per second. Digital tuners are calibrated to this, so if you tune your guitar with a modern tuner it'll be set up to the universally agreed standard, and you'll immediately sound in tune when playing with other musicians tuned to concert pitch (er assuming you're playing the same thing haha)

The "Key " of a song is just the starting point for the chords/melody to start - if you think of the I-V-vi-IV sequence, it's a relative thing describing intervals based on a starting point, and the key just defines the starting point.

(Though be aware that some songs start and 'resolve' to a key which isn't the starting chord - eg Back in the USSR by the Beatles starts in E7 but resolves such that the whole song is in A)

Regarding singing : one of the reasons that people change the key of a song is so that it's easier for them to sing- some people can sing higher than others (wonem have a higher range than men), and not everyone cxan reach the high/low notes involved in some tunes. So you can just slide the starting point up or down in pitch a bit to suit your voice.

Will you have to sing it differently ? Yes- the tune will be the same relative to the new chords you're playing, but it'll be slightly lower. You'll probably find that when you start playing it you can sing it straight away- humans are pretty remarkable like that :-)

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Wow, that's really interesting. I guess there is a lot more to this than i thought. Thanks for the reply! –  user2237160 Mar 6 at 21:27
    
pleasure! - Doug –  user2808054 Mar 7 at 9:23

Yes, you have to sing it differently when the key changes. Higher or lower in pitch. the range of the singer or instrument to play the melody is one of the primary reasons for you to change key. If the song is not so guitar based (i.e. Dust in The Wind, Stairway to Heaven) the key change should not affect how it sounds but that is for you to judge. You could also play it in G and use the capo in second fret to maintain the original key. Or you could use a simplified version of the F chord without the barre.

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