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Before his compositions were rediscovered JS Bach was not known as a composer--that Bach was CPE Bach--but as one of the foremost improvisers and performers of his time.

What is known about JS Bach's improvisational technique?

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2 Answers 2

At that time, improvisation was a common practice. Actually, when keyboard instruments started to be used, its music was not even written. Everything was improvised. Keyboard music started as accompaniment for choirs, etc. Therefore, the keyboard performer would often rely on a voice score or whatever and improvise a second voice or whatever from that. When they started to notate music for keyboard, they didn't have a proper way to do it.

This feels like ancient ages to us, but for Bach it was not that far away. Bach and his contemporaries come from that tradition. Bach was probably able to improvise the kind of music that he wrote, since composition and performance was not detached as it is today. Bach would probably be able to improvise a little invention on the clavichord, or a complete fugue on the organ, or a continuo accompaniment for a soloist, a Choral preludium from a Choral, also transpose an accompaniment for a singer... He would probably improvise pretty much the same kind of stuff that he wrote on paper, only that, perhaps, without the formal strictness and complexity of the written works. In fact, many works or parts of works written by Bach may come from improvisations that he later wrote down and elaborated.

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Good start, but what are the principles of improvisation? – empty Aug 11 '14 at 3:06
@KevinJohnsrude What does that mean? Improvisation is composing in real time--and the question "What are the principles of J.S. Bach's composition?" is likely too broad to be answerable. – NReilingh Aug 11 '14 at 3:46
Yes... In an intuitive way, I would sum up the principles like this: "principles of improvisation are the principles of composition that you can apply on the fly". I am no improvisation expert, though. – George Aug 11 '14 at 14:02
Nevertheless, I don't think the question has a real answer. For composition we can analyze the works. Improvisation is different, because an improvisation is a performance, which in addition is spontaneous. Now, how can you know how Bach performed this or that on a particular day? Some historical documents may give account of somethins¡g, but truth is that we cannot do much more than speculate. – George Aug 11 '14 at 14:07
For those interested in stylistic rules, there are historical documents. I recommend "Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments" by C.P.E.Bach. It's pretty technical and, at the end, in many instances it's pretty difficult to know for certain what the text means. Music's details are difficult to put into words. – George Aug 11 '14 at 14:11
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We may not know from recordings how JS Bach improvised but we can make some guesses. Bach played the organ in churches and so we might rightfully guess that the current practice of European church organists had its origin in the corpus of practice of Bach's time. I've answered this possible practice here:
Does improvisation in the classical idiom differ significantly from jazz and folk improvisation?

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The current practice of European church organists is not necessarily close to Bach's practice. It might, but as you say, you can only "guess". "Believing" (guessing) and "knowing" is not the same. To improvise in a style, you "only" have to learn to compose in that style, and then be able "compose live". So for example: if you want to improvise a Choral, study Bach's voice-leading and harmonic structures so well than you can build them live. – George Aug 12 '14 at 10:41
Now, if what you want is a set of easy and simple rules to improvise and compose in Bach's style, you're just out of the right path. Rationale: Bach's style is not easy nor simple. – George Aug 12 '14 at 10:43
Elegance is simple. – empty Aug 14 '14 at 1:34
Elegance "feels" simple, but holds lots of complexity underneath. Neglecting the complixity behind simplicity leads to superficiality. That's why "elegance" is so difficult to teach/learn in conceptual terms. – George Aug 14 '14 at 9:14

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