Debussy surely influenced the piano playing of trumpeter Bix Beiderbecke.
It is also said that the bebop harmony has been inspired by Western Music; from people like Debussy and Schoenberg.
Kubik, Gerhard. "Bebop: a case in point. The African Matrix in Jazz Harmonic Practices." (Critical essay) Black Music Research Journal 22 Mar 2005. Digital.:
While for an outside observer, the harmonic innovations in bebop would
appear to be inspired by experiences in Western "serious" music, from
Claude Debussy to Arnold Schoenberg, such a scheme cannot be sustained
by the evidence from a cognitive approach. Claude Debussy did have
some influence on jazz, for example, on Bix Beiderbecke's piano
playing. And it is also true that Duke Ellington adopted and
reinterpreted some harmonic devices in European contemporary music.
West Coast jazz would run into such debts as would several forms of
cool jazz. But bebop has hardly any such debts in the sense of direct
borrowings. On the contrary, ideologically, bebop was a strong
statement of rejection of any kind of eclecticism, propelled by a
desire to activate something deeply buried in self. Bebop then revived
tonal-harmonic ideas transmitted through the blues and reconstructed
and expanded others in a basically non-Western harmonic approach. The
ultimate significance of all this is that the experiments in jazz
during the 1940s brought back to African-American music several
structural principles and techniques rooted in African traditions.
Also, there are some scales that Debussy used that where later used in bebop (and jazz), like the whole tone scale.
(The Birth of Bebop: A Social and Musical History)