Is there anything like that that heavy or other kinds of violin-strings should break down the instrument?
Thicker strings (aka higher gauge strings) do exert higher tension on the instrument. on a violin they will do this in two primary directions, one is is pulling the neck toward the tail piece, and the other is putting more pressure on the bridge.
I don't think having higher gauge strings will make much of a difference, but you should make sure of two things anyways:
You probably want to take a good violin to a luthier at least once a year.
If you have a high-quality instrument, heavy strings shouldn't damage it.
If your instrument is made out of cardboard or you're stringing it with steel power cables, things aren't so certain. Just don't do anything ridiculous; going up a gauge or two won't exceed the parameters of a decent instrument.