Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber (1644-1704): La Battalia Sinfonia (1673)
From program notes:
La Battalia was written very much in the style of the day, but even these centuries later sounds rather modern, especially because of Biber’s use of percussive effects in the string writing. The work, which is in short movements, was written in 1673 in the fading shadows of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). As the title indicates, Biber wanted to portray sounds of battle. Yet, as you hear, he chose a more playful manner of portrayal. He called for col legno (striking the strings with the back of the bow), snapping the strings to sound like gunfire, and imitating drum sounds by slipping a piece of paper between the strings before striking them.
Not sure if the musicological field has this placed at first or not, but I think I've got Berlioz beat by a century and a half. :-)