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I'm analyzing Mozart's Turkish March piece for the piano.

As I see in measure 18 the harmony is F7 (fourth) with minor seven.

Assuming it is a minor seven because the harmony is F7 why they thought about the seventh as D sharp but not E flat ?

In other words:

Harmony is F7 --> includes Minor 7 --> should be E flat

See the picture (the measure in the middle)

measure 18

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What key is it in again? Also note that E is notated in the next measure. While a natural sign wouldn't be strictly necessary in the next measure if Eb were used, it seems a bit clearer as written. Oh and E in the previous measure. – Todd Wilcox Jan 18 at 21:44
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The key is A minor if anything. – user1803551 Jan 18 at 22:01
    
For context, I believe this is the sheet music. – user1803551 Jan 18 at 22:04
up vote 8 down vote accepted

It's a D# because it's functioning as a D#. In the three measures you can see the line goes E -> D# -> E. It's acting much more leading tone like than 7th like as if it were truly an F7 the next note would either be the same or resolve down.

The fact the harmony could be interpreted as an F7 is kind of a moot point as the next measure lands squarely on Am which harmonically doesn't make the most sense and could be a more chromatic harmony or exotic in nature which in that case a lot more needs to be looked into in this analysis.

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That makes me think it might really be an augmented 6th instead of a minor 7th. – Todd Wilcox Jan 18 at 22:01
    
@ToddWilcox or Augmented 4th to Perfect 5th as the chord before and after seem to be Am and this could be an alteration. Without looking at the whole phrase it could be a lot of different things. – Dom Jan 18 at 22:03
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It's a French 6th. The B in the descant is a chord tone, the top three notes make a truncated B dominant 7th chord (no fifth), the F in the bass moves to E. – Patrx2 Jan 19 at 0:13
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Yeah, I agree with @Patrx2. This is a fairly clear example of a French augmented sixth (or Italian augmented sixth with a B passing tone, which to me is basically six of one, half a dozen the other). The only thing making it slightly less straightforward is that it doesn't proceed to as clear-cut of a V as it normally tends to. But it's still moving to a cadential 6/4 followed by an (admittedly somewhat mangled) V4/2. – Pat Muchmore Jan 19 at 4:24
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@PatMuchmore, I'm saying French 6th here because Mozart is being really cute. The first half of the bar is being voiced as if it were F7, but he's treating the high C as an appoggiatura with a cambiata-style resolution. – Patrx2 Jan 19 at 19:56

To amplify Dom's reply, it is indeed a D♯. What is going on here is that Mozart is using an augmented sixth chord (specifically the French sixth) that is being used as dominant preparation. Normally how a French sixth works is that the upper notes form V7 of V (with a missing fifth), while the bass falls a half step from ♭6 to 5. It is a variant of the Phrygian cadence (iv6 - V).

Thus the progression would normally be F6 - V - i, but Mozart is being cute here: instead of holding the high B and heading directly to V, he is taking the chord through the tonic second inversion (which is normally treated as a suspension or appoggiatura leading to V, and is thus also dominant preparation) to the second inversion diminished seventh on G♯, which stands in for V.

Sure enough, in the following bar he ends up on i6 (A minor). The B and A in the descant of the 2nd bar of your example are passing notes, the A being an accented one.

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Nice catch seeing that it might be an augmented 6th instead of a minor 7th. Wish I'd thought of that. ;-) No seriously +1. Nice answer. – Todd Wilcox Jan 19 at 5:14
    
Very nice analysis. I'll admit I completely missed the augmented 6th and was focusing much more on the static line, but now I see it clear as day. – Dom Jan 19 at 14:34
    
@Dom, thank you. Yeah, the F -> E in the bass is a dead giveaway. – Patrx2 Jan 19 at 17:09

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