These are the books & online resources I like, and these go way beyond basic tricks.
Book: Theory of Harmony by Arnold Shoenberg
Shoenberg is one of the most influential composers of 20th century. This book raises some fundamental questions about music. See also: Structrual Functions of Harmony
Books: Walter Piston's Counterpoint, ... (actually, this list is endless. Read below)
Contemporary composer Alan Belkin has written very interesting articles on Form, Harmony, Counterpoint etc. His site has the articles with score snippets with audio. free!
These articles don't teach the rudiments, or any specifics on a given topic (like a chord progression, or a particular Form such as sonata), but try to explore the underlying principles and their implications.
IMSLP has many public domain books on Music Theory.
Some Universities/Conservatories post some useful resources online. I compiled a list of similar resources and posted them in my blog post
If you are looking for a "one book that has everything you need to know", probably you are going to be disappointed. But there are soooooooooo many books that are quite resourceful.
If you intend to master theory, probably you'll have to pick up a book, read and work out for a couple of years at least. Again, probably you'll end up reading more than one book. The term Theory itself is quite broad. Form, Harmony, Counterpoint, Orchestration ... all for a particular style of music (say western classical tradition), and there are other styles of music as well (Jazz ...)