I have two suggestions, although neither is a perfect solution.
If you plug all the info you mentioned into a spreadsheet, it'd be easily sortable by any of those criteria. That doesn't organize the files themselves, though, so you'd have to either think up some folder structure for the files (I simply used very broad instrumentation folders, then composer).
The second suggestion is use some sort of either paperless office software (Like DevonThink Office for Mac, as I use) or a database software to keep track like the spreadsheet. Depending on the software, it may not solve your actual file management issue though, just be a searchable database of all the information.
I'll confess to not knowing a whole lot about linux and software available for it; you may have better luck asking around for database or paperless office softwares on a Linux specific site or stack exchange. I'd just put what you're looking to do in general terms: keep track of files, and be able to search by user-defined attributes or tags. Good luck!