Bach used the Deceptive Cadence as early as his Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor, BWV 582, which dates to the early 18th century. Are there earlier uses? A definitive answer may be impossible, but I am interested in how far back its usage can be traced.
The earliest two references I can find of what are now known as deceptive cadences originate with Josquin des Prez's Missa Una musque de Buscaya (listed without a date on Wikipedia, which only fleetingly mentions it under a different spelling, suggesting that his authorship is doubtful) and Francesco Spinacino's arrangement of Fortuna dun gran tempo. I was not able to find particular dates for either of these works, but based on the known dates of their authors, this places deceptive cadences at least as far back as the early 1520s, if not as far back as the late 15th century.
The article I found these in itself unfortunately requires access to JSTOR, but below are the two relevant parts of the article.