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I'd like for someone to explain the 7 modes derived from the C major scale.

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The word you are looking for is "modes", not "scales". –  Wheat Williams Oct 2 '12 at 4:59
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The seven Modes are named thusly. If you start with C, they are spelled as follows:

Ionian (1), or the Major scale: C D E F G A B C

Dorian (2), D E F G A B C D

Phrygian (3) E F G A B C D E

Lydian (4) F G A B C D E F

Mixolydian (5) G A B C D E F G (which is the most common mode for rock and roll)

Aeolian (6), or the Natural Minor scale: A B C D E F G A

Locrian (7) B C D E F G A B

A thorough explanation of how they are all used can be found in the Wikipedia entry entitled "Mode (music)".

My music theory teacher in college always drew the distinction between key and mode. His point was that there is not, properly speaking such a thing as a C major key or a C minor key. He said that key refers to the central pitch, or the root note, only. From the root note, or key, you build a scale or mode. So he would refer to what we call the C major key as "the key of C in the Ionian mode" and what we refer to as the C minor key as "the key of C in the Aeolian mode."

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Oh, great! Thank you. I can't even up your answer. Very interesting. –  BBking Oct 2 '12 at 5:17
    
So, my next question. What's the difference between a mode and a scale? –  BBking Oct 2 '12 at 10:13
    
    
It's worth noting, as the Wikipedia article Wheat mentioned does, that there are modes beyond the seven formed by starting at different points in C major. Some of these come from folk or cultural traditions (e.g. Hava Nagila is in a mode called Freygish) while others are more theoretical (e.g. the Bohlen-Pierce scale). OK, perhaps it wasn't worth noting the theoretical ones ;-) –  dumbledad Oct 2 '12 at 18:02
    
Thanks guys! Much appreciated. –  BBking Oct 2 '12 at 22:30
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