On first glance, your rhythm appears to be a slightly-modified 2/3 clave. As you can see from the linked article, the clave rhythms (so named because, in some styles, the rhythm is played on the claves) are a subject of some controversy. One way to classify clave rhythms is "2/3" versus "3/2", depending whether the first half of the pattern contains two notes or three, respectively. In this case, the first half of your pattern has two notes, and the second half has three, hence the 2/3 clave designation. As the article states, in standard notation, the clave patterns are often written over a span of two bars of alla breve rather than one bar of 4/4 time. However, that is a matter of notation, not sound. I would hesitate to call a pattern over eight beats (e.g., two bars of 4/4) rather than four a clave rhythm, but you are describing a pattern comprising four beats.
Your rhythm differs slightly from the more "traditional" 2/3 clave in that the second note is a little late, producing the near-symmetry that you describe while containing a repeatable pattern within four beats. To my ear, this pattern still retains the character of the 2/3 clave.
The clave patterns occur in many musical styles, often in one of the percussion instruments associated with a "hand-clap" effect (e.g., the snare drum of a drum kit, perhaps even using rim shots instead of just hitting the drum head normally).