I don't have/want to use capo for my guitar.
Can a specific tuning be applied as an alternative to capo?
For the sake of a thorough answer, there are some new electric guitars that have recently appeared on the market that make use of what is refered to as a "digital capo". They can be configured to use built-in digital signal processing to raise or lower the pitch of the strings by digital pitch-shifting, while the actual tuning of the physical strings stays the same. So the notes coming out of your amplifier are different than the acoustical notes played by the strings themselves.
Getting one of these guitars would be expensive as they are rather esoteric instruments. The pitch-shifting technique is not entirely natural-sounding.
It entirely depends what you want to play.
A capo is for transposing a piece up by some number of semitones, without changing the fingering. So let's look at ways to transpose those pieces without a capo -- it will often involve changing the fingering:
There are transpositions that can't practically be achieved without a capo.
Consider this chord:
The fretting is all on the 6th and 7th fret, but there are also three open strings. If you tried to transpose this up by 3 semitones, without a capo or retuning, you'd have to finger the 3rd fret, as well as the 9th and 11th fret. Nobody's hand is that big!
You don't explain why you don't want to use a capo. If you want to achieve what a capo does, then a capo is the best way to do it.