The methods, rules, and conventions for representing music visually.

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Does a key signature remain the same after a clef change?

Does a key signature stay the same after a clef change? I have provided an example; it is in the second staff of the lower system as indicated by the blue arrow.
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3answers
313 views

8 under clef and timing questions

Please look at the below graphic, there are a few things that are confusing me: 1 - Why is there an 8 under the treble clef? 2 - This is in common 4/4 time, yet one of the beginning 8th notes (in ...
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5answers
453 views

Default connection of notes in sheet music

What is default connection of notes in sheet music if there are no slur, stoccato/tenuto/other marks: legato, portato... or something else? I usually hear that slur is needed to indicate legato, but ...
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3answers
650 views

What does this notation mean?

Specifically I'd like to know about the apparent joining of a dotted quaver and a semiquaver in the second row of my photo. Is that what these are? If that is what is meant then how does this differ ...
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2answers
75 views

Modern convention for writing raised sixth in figured bass?

In typesetting figured bass for modern readers, what is the preferred way of indicating a raised sixth? I'm under the impression that the backslash approach is considered archaic, but unsure about ...
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2answers
199 views

Different representation of consecutive sixteenth notes

These are two different bars from "John Thompson's Grade 3" arrangement "Hungarian Rhapsody no.2". Is there a difference between the time value of the first F in the first picture and the first D in ...
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4answers
1k views

International notation system

I would like to know if there is a special order for notes in English and/or an international notation system. In french, our order is Do Ré Mi Fa Sol La Si which is equivalent to C D E F G A B, what ...
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1answer
1k views

Must “first-time bars” and “second-time bars” appear together?

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repeat_sign When a repeat calls for a different ending, number brackets above the bars indicate which to played the first time (1), which to play the second time (...
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6answers
123 views

Fermata until note fades away

Usually, the length of a fermata depends on the performer. In a song I'm composing, I use fermatas quite often and the way I want the performer to interpret them is to tell him to hold the note until ...
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2answers
277 views

Is there a key signature for harmonic minor scale?

I know that sharp key signatures are applied in the order: F C G D A E B and that flat key signatures are applied as: B E A D G C F. But these are for major and minor scales, right? Is there a way to ...
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2answers
348 views

Why do composers use fermatas?

I am taking part in a music theory course on coursera, and I could not understand the difference between a tie and a fermata. Could someone please explain it to me?
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2answers
1k views

E chord with arc and dot symbol over it - What is this symbol in a guitar chord song book?

I have a book which has the lyrics and guitar chords for some songs. It shows the tab at the top of the page for each chord and each chord letter to be played above the lyrics. This seems simple ...
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1answer
2k views

What does a marking of Trio. mean on a score?

In this version of Mozart's German Dances, the third section of each dance has "Trio." engraved above the staff. What does this indicate?
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2answers
1k views

What is the correct way of filling a 9/8 bar with a single note?

Similar to how you can fill a whole 4/4 bar with a single whole note, what is the best or most correct/readable way to fill a 9/8 bar with one note? I was thinking about a dotted half note tied with a ...
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3answers
2k views

When to use a2 / unis / tutti in orchestral score?

So far from most of the sheet scores I've read, a2 is used mostly in wood and brass instrument staves, while unis. (and on rarer occasion, tutti) is in string instruments. It is even possible to see ...
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6answers
652 views

Notating Original Songs for Musicians

I have written many songs in a rock band setting and I have notated them in a multitude of ways including lead sheets, standard scores written in Finale, and guitar tabulate. Over the years I have ...
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2answers
157 views

“crescendo” vs hair pin

symphony no.1 movement 1 page 16 by the string sections Working on Peter I. Tchaikovsky first symphony manuscript Conductor score. I came to a interesting observation. On the same page all ...
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4answers
531 views

Clementi Op. 42 Lesson 5 Arietta (ABRSM Grade 1, A1), use of crescendo and diminuendo

I'm new to piano (and music theory) and I'm a little confused by the notation used for what I understand to be crescendo and diminuendo for the Arietta A1 piece. The first bar starts off with a "p" ...
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2answers
291 views

What's the tempo?

I bought some sheet music for "Canon in D" by JP. I am trying to put that sheet music into Guitar Pro so I can practice it bar by bar, my question is: If the tempo is not specified, is there a "...
3
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1answer
551 views

Is there more than one use for Roman Numerals in music notation?

I'm used to the standard use of Roman Numerals to note chord sequences in a key-independent way e.g. I vi IV V But I'm sure I've seen people also use them in some other context in answers on this ...
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3answers
269 views

Why are notes beamed across the barline in this piece?

In the piece Three Pieces for String Quartet by Igor Stravinsky I've noticed something very odd that I cannot explain. There are several places in the piece where eighth notes are beamed across ...
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2answers
176 views

Accidental in Chopin Opus. 69 No. 2

This is an excerpt from Opus. 69 No. 2 by Chopin from the Henle Urtext: In the last bar seen in the excerpt, there is a sharp on the A in bass line. Since A is already "sharped" in the key ...
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1answer
59 views

Cross hands while playing?

In the score below (from 1905 incidental score to Peter Pan by John Crook (1852–1922), see http://hdl.handle.net/1802/24425), the first few bars in both bass & treble staves have notations “L.H.” &...
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1answer
101 views

What does the +3 mean in G7+3?

It occurs in the piano part of Sleepy Lagoon (Harry James Orchestra). The context is as follows: C | | | | | Am | D9 | | G7+3 / G96 / | G7+3 / G96 / | G7 / Em F#m° | G7 I ...
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3answers
121 views

A question about quarter notes

I have a question about the term quarter note. I thought of putting clarity in the question by doing a little calculation. Let us say BPM = 120 .So Beat time is 0.5 s. So in 4/4 signature the ...
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3answers
224 views

How to think in number chord notation for Major and Minor

I learned most of my songs in the Major key and used a number system to learn it to be able to transpose the song easily. I now have a minor song I am learning and originally used the Major numbers to ...
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2answers
403 views

Square bracket next to two notes

I was looking though some old music today and I found a symbol I did not recognize. This symbol as shown below looks like a square bracket next to two notes. So what is the bracket suppose to mean?
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1answer
228 views

how do you play a double mortent on the piano

I am guessing the wavy line from one chord up to another chord is Double mortent. I looked online and this is the only term I could locate for this symbol. Can you tell me how it is played?
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1answer
71 views

Representation of a 5/16 note duration

How can I write on a pentagram (another word for the staff in my country) a note that is 5 x 1/16 notes length? If I use a dotted quarter note I get 6 x 1/16 length I can get away with a quarter note ...
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2answers
267 views

How to read accidentals in medieval music “modern” notation?

I am writing an instrumental orchestration of De Machaut's Messe de Nostre Dame, Kyrie. I found scores in IMSLP here and here. These scores show accidentals above notes, sometimes in parenthesis. I ...
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1answer
223 views

Half oval 3 over notes

I'm a bit confused about this graphic, notice the half ovals on top with the 3 in the center: Is that a "triplet" and the same as this graphic in guitar pro? Please note that I have searched but ...
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1answer
404 views

What is a “7-9” chord? (G7-9, etc..)

There's a chord in the Lennie Niehaus arrangement of the Stan Kenton Orchestra version of Laura, written by Johnny Mercer and David Raksin. This chord is written as G7-9. In googling, I get G7(#9) a ...
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2answers
111 views

Octave shift context

I'm learning this amazing piece of music from Nikolai Kapustin ... although I already play it well (kind of, at least most of it), I'm still unsure about some parts... so I decided I should ask ...
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1answer
123 views

Notation on Schubert's Op.94, D760, piece 6

I was practicing the 6th moment musicaux of Schubert's Op. 94 using a Henle edition (which is in public domain in imslp, Here) and I encountered something I have never seen before. Over the bars 30, ...
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2answers
24 views

Handling of dotted eighth rests when a “swing rule” is in place, and whether physical note position has effect on it

I had a discussion with a friend today about how a certain part of a song is supposed to be played. Over time, several more people came in and added their own opinions and explanations, and now there ...
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1answer
115 views

The development of the musical staff: If and when did it have fifteen lines?

I am doing research on music history and I cannot find information between the four line chant staff and the grand staff. Also, I do believe that at different times in its development the staff ...
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2answers
141 views

What do Single brackets on notes in guitar music mean?

Anyone got any idea what these single brackets on notes mean in this guitar music?
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3answers
108 views

How do I retrain myself to memorize germanic note naming (C-D-E) if I've been taught the latin one (Do-Re-Mi) as a kid?

Basically the title contains the entire question. I learned music as a kid in Ukraine. In Eastern Europe (ex-USSR), commonly used note naming is "Do-Re-Mi-Fa-Sol-La-Si" ("fixed do solfège"), not the ...
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2answers
113 views

What are Kick Lines?

I'm reading a drum notation book and it talks about "kick lines"? Is there a precise definition somewhere? (searching doesn't help since it thinks I'm talking about the kick drum)
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2answers
318 views

How to indicate left hand for piano sheet music

The Chopin - Godowsky Revolutionary Etude No 12 is arranged for the left hand only, and we're only informed about this by a note under the title. Please see the excerpt below: I am currently ...
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1answer
239 views

Should chords in Bach's solo violin pieces be arpeggiated if not marked as such?

So I came across this interesting statement about the way we should play Bach's solo violin pieces. One source claimed that Bach was not a lousy writer — he was actually a very accurate and ...
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3answers
270 views

Note Flag instead of Beam

INTRODUCTION Hello, I am an IT student which have to make an application to write sheet-music. I basically know nothing about music. But, I won't explain why I stumbled upon this project even ...
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3answers
353 views

Chord notation for stacked and inverted chords or intervals?

I understand how chord notation works for the most part, but I'm wondering how I would notate intervals, octaves, and specific chords. P1, m3, & P5 is Cmin. P1, P5 is C5 But, how do we notate P1 ...
3
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1answer
229 views

How to make nonstandard scales on Finale?

I'm trying to use the scale: A,C,F#,A And then: A,B,C#,D#,F,G,A But I'll need to input a nonstandard key signature. How can I do that?
3
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1answer
42 views

How to notate extended vocal techniques (i.e. inhaling)?

While the Wikipedia article indicates many types of extended vocal techniques, their notations are not available. Despite hearing such effects in modern pieces, I've never had the chance of knowing ...
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2answers
134 views

What's this drum symbol (X with line in the middle without tail)

Can someone please help me identify this drum symbol? It's from the second bar here:
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1answer
86 views

Alternatives to standard western notation geared towards composers?

While the western standard for music notation is good for both composers and performers alike, there are certain areas where it is lacking, especially when it comes to new developments in music (...
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2answers
86 views

What is this mirrored rest? [duplicate]

Haven't seen this mirrored rest before (from Gymnopedia No. 1). What does it mean? How long of a rest is it? Thanks.
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3answers
242 views

Notation for flute trills in music score

I'm only playing simple pieces (Grade 1 in the UK) but even some of these have Tr notation next to a note, and a separate bit of score above the score. What I notice is, the note in the main score is ...
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1answer
35 views

Notations mentioned in answers re. trombone

Would someone please explain the notations E2, F3, etc. which are used in answers on this site regarding trombone? I'm not familiar with those.