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1

The signs are different forms of the letter B, which were needed as the different hexachords had different types of B's (namely, B flat and B natural). There isn't much more to say, Wikipedia has all you need. The letter B: Archaic forms of 'b', the b quadratum (square b, ♮) and b rotundum (round b, ♭) are used in musical notation as the symbols for ...


5

Medieval German notation for modal music (for all instruments and voices, not just for fretted stringed instruments) was essentially tablature, but using letter names for the notes instead of fret numbers as in modern tab notation. In early modal music, the only "altered" notes were B flat and B natural, which were written using different "square" and "round"...


-1

I only just learned this, but it has to do with how the notes get named out. In a major scale, all notes A-G, no matter sharp or flat, are expected to appear exactly once. So in your case, if we spell out the scales: C# - D# - E# - F# - G# - A# - B# - C# But the problem is that E# doesn't exist, it's F. Same with B#. And if we write it like that... C# - ...


7

A simple google(*) finds the following tutorial: http://www.lesession.co.uk/abc/abc_notation.htm#sharps sharp: ^f flat: _b natural: =c Note that the accidental precedes the note. (*) When googling for information about ABC, it often helps to add the word "notation" to the search, to weed out false positives.


8

Sharp - ^ Flat - _ Natural - = From The abc music standard 2.1 (Dec 2011) The symbols ^, = and _ are used (before a note) to notate respectively a sharp, natural or flat. Double sharps and flats are available with ^^ and __ respectively.


1

The question is not crystal clear to me. Do you mean 'does it HAVE to have a seventh in it', or 'why is the seventh actually not in the key'? Richard answered the first, but be aware that by calling a chord just a 9th will incorporate the flattened 7th and an ordinary 9th. As Richard stated, it's because it becomes the dominant chord in the key of its IV. ...


2

All 9th chords imply the inclusion of a flat seventh. This includes sharp and flat 9th chords (#9 and b9). However, there is a good reason why the 7 would usually be included in sharp and flat 9th chord names. It is because it may be unclear whether the sharp or flat symbol is "attached" to the 9 or the letter name of the chord. A couple of examples will ...


1

By default, any chord with an "extension" higher than 7 includes that lowered 7th. So C9, C11, and C13 all have a B-flat implied in the chord. It doesn't matter what the accidental is on the 9, 11, or 13, the 7 will always be b7. (Thus your first sentence is technically incorrect; the 7th is not the 7th degree of the C major scale, it's actually the lowered ...



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