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4

The accidental ♭ does not combine with the ♭ in the key signature to produce a double-flat. Rather, the accidental is redundant. The easiest interpretation rule is that any accidental overrides whatever is in the key signature. The term for such usage is courtesy accidental: Although a barline is nowadays understood to cancel the effect of an ...


4

No it indicates B flat. Usually the flat is cancelling a natural (or sharp) earlier in the measure. Even if it's not cancelling, it has only been included by the editor to improve the readability of the passage.


14

No, it is still a B♭. The flat is just reminding you that the B is flat. This is typically done if the previous measure uses a B that was different then the one in the key signature or if there was a different quality of B used in the measure it is used to cancel out the other quality. In the key D minor, if you were ascending from A to D, a typical melody ...


1

They are indeed equivalent, at least in Equal Temperament (which is the most widely used tuning system in western music). You might prefer one over the other depending on how things modulate. If you're going to modulate to the parallel minor, use C#, since C# minor has 4 sharps, whereas Db minor doesn't really exist (it would have 8 flats--one for each ...



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