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18

I assume it's french "si l'on veut" - "at one's pleasure" - "ad libitum". It means that the performer may decide freely playing the triples as written or to octavate them (as IMHO it isn't a slur but a 8va bracket).


14

"First it's G major, and then down to E minor, and then straight to B major(?) then back to A minor and to G major again." No. As Tim pointed out, this piece is firmly in E minor. The key signature is the first hint - one sharp indicates either G major or E minor. The fact that the piece starts with an Eminor chord is the second clue. (The upbeat starts ...


13

The X's are sharp signs, which means this piece is in D. Note, an X can also mean a double sharp, but in this context (throughout the whole piece), it clearly refers to a sharp. The t.'s mean trill (this is confirmed by many recordings that I've listened to). The W's at the end of the line tell where the first note on the next line is. For example, the ...


13

Couple of ideas... Harmony: Baroque music was the period when harmonic progression (instead of just counter point) started to become a fundamental part of composition (See Functional Tonality). Dissonance is resolved to consonance throughout a phase. Minimalism tends to focus more on a stable harmony, but in both case the Harmony tends to be a very ...


13

I hope no one minds that I got curious, and did a bit of digging into this on my own. I discovered what appears to be an excellent resource answering this very question. The book is entitled Between Modes and Keys: German Theory, 1592-1802 by Joel Lester (1989). I do not have access to a copy of the book, but I've been able to see several relevant portions ...


12

Baroque music was all about expressiveness, and the rhythm was not necessarily meant to be held as strictly as the Renaissance tactus. Wheat Williams has mentioned historically informed performance, and as he says, these things are debated academically. But there is some good indication that Baroque composers did think of slowing down at the end of pieces. ...


11

The short answer is yes (and I have occasionally written such music myself). Musical styles never really die, they just fall out of general fashion. It should be noted that there are a couple categories of music that might be considered in an answer. First off, and perhaps least authentic, are what might be termed "fusion" styles -- mixtures of baroque (or ...


9

Or you can always buy the book. Quantz did in fact write what many consider the definitive book on playing the baroque flute and since you are playing a piece written by him I don't see how you can go wrong following his advice. Google 'Quantz on playing the flute.' I quick note I do not have the quote handy but to paraphrase Quantz, "repeated passages ...


9

Well, the thing to remember is that the harpsichord and organ have no touch sensitivity like piano, and the piano wasn't invented yet. So any kind of keyboard music was written to be played all at the same volume, and composers made the sound fuller or emptier by managing the voicing. If you play a Bach fugue on a piano, you can add dynamics but it won't ...


9

Wheat Williams covered the basics of historically-informed-performance quite well. I want to add that unmeasured preludes (not uncommon in Baroque music) indicate that Baroque composers did have a concept of give-and-take in regards to tempo. (You can look at examples of preludes here or here to see what the music looked like.) So, while the purists may ...


8

Some of the music was written quickly in a kind of shorthand. If you as a harpsichordist were expected to write a new piece for flute and harpsichord to be performed tonight, you would probably just write a lead sheet for the harpsichord part and wing it from that. The Baroque equivalent is "figured bass": just the bass notes with numbers indicating the ...


8

Yes, dynamic changes are predominantly achieved by choosing different stops. No, baroque music virtually never specifies which precise stops to pull. The most you can expect is something general such as "Sur les flûtes", or "organo pleno" - and even this doesn't mean what you might think (almost never "all existing stops", usually something more like "stops ...


8

The point of counterpoint is to make voices have harmonic dependence while having rhythmic and contour independence. i.e. The voices are independent, but all function harmonically. There are parallel 5ths between the bass and the first violin, but the bass and the violin are very dependent on each other at this point so they move together as one unit instead ...


8

This is a custos (from latin, plural custodes), see lilypond documentation. No match in English Wikipedia, however. The German Wikipedia has it and adds the following translations (as its usage mostly dating from the 18th century): Guidon (French) Direct (English) Mostra (Italian) and Kustos, Weiser (German). A German Encyclopedia of Church Composition ...


7

Age: Here's the download page. This pdf is the first one (#20529), and there it says it's from ~1733. Locatelli was still alive then so it could very well be the first print. With the red, green, and blue markings I agree with the others; we have sharps, trills, and continuation indicators (showing the first note of the next line) The purple markings also ...


7

Here is the Table of Ornaments with which Bach prefaced his Clavier-Büchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach: To put it simply, what he wrote there (according to the MS and Bach Gesellschaft edition) was a short trill starting on the upper auxiliary.


7

The theme only looks easy. The hard part is fitting in all the ornaments and getting the result to sound like you were just making it up as you go, but not turning into an incoherent mess. Var 13 and 25 is another two where the notes are easy enough, but it's hard to stop it sounding like a rather boring technical exercise. The variations that are scariest ...


6

It's a baroque trumpet, basically a historical version of a trumpet without valves. Probably they hold it like that because that was the way it was held at that time (think of musicians on a tower, announcing the arrival of the king or stuff like that...)


6

The Goldberg Variations are considered infamous / demanding for a few reasons, which I will outline briefly below. Firstly, the reasons why the work is infamous: The work is a theme and variations, and to my knowledge there is only one other JS Bach piece that follow suit (see comments below). The work represents the highest model of Baroque theme and ...


5

About his development as a composer and the links with his 2 older brothers Johann-Christof and Johann-Jacob. Yes JS was exposed very early to music, music practice and various instruments. He and his brothers were expected to master various instruments and to play ex tempore and generally become proficient in the family's trade, go to other members of the ...


5

Much of Bach's education in composition came from him making hand copies of many musical scores, as music was not mass-printed at the time. Having mastered the Baroque notions of counterpoint and developing motives, combined with his known skill at improvising in the style, why would he seek to give up mastery of a style to be mediocre at a new one? As to ...


5

From the Grove Online article on Mode by the late, noted musicologist Harold Powers: "[Johan Mattheson's Das neu-eröffnete Orchestre listed] the 24 major and minor keys, [which had been] first set out as a whole in 1711, only two years earlier, in Heinichen’s Neu erfundene und gründliche Anweisung … des General-Basses." Powers quotes Mattheson specifically ...


5

My music history professor stated flat out that Handel's English text setting was just plain bad because of his poor understanding of the language, and this was his Exhibit A. There is also the Golf Song: "FORE! Unto us a child is born!" I think he could have done better: "All WE, like SHEEP, like SHEEP have gone astray" but that's just my opinion. ...


5

My music history professor, Joel Sheveloff, told us that Goldberg would not have played the whole thing through for the Count every night. He imagined the Count requesting numbers according to his mood: "Play some of the canons." "Play the quodlibet." I don't think we can know for sure, but Prof. Sheveloff had better credentials than I do. Even so, ...


5

If you take a look at music like the two-part inventions and three-part symphonies by Bach, they make a lot of musical sense, and while they are intended as practice pieces, the prevalent problem (and increase of diffuculty when going from inventions to symphonies) is not one of hitting particular combinations of notes at the same time but rather of ...


5

I'm presuming you mean this minuet: I can't think of any examples off the top of my head, although I have heard this cadence before - it is fairly typical for two voices. The constraint to two voices means that some part of the the standard perfect cadence is going to be dropped. The linear descent in the descant to the tonic is a topos (a standard ...


5

Go to the source: Quantz. This is in the original German. (There's also a contemporaneous French translation on the site.) The English translation, On playing the flute, (Edward R. Reilly, translator) is readily available from Amazon.



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