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18

I assume it's french "si l'on veut" - "at one's pleasure" - "ad libitum". It means that the performer may decide freely playing the triples as written or to octavate them (as IMHO it isn't a slur but a 8va bracket).


14

"First it's G major, and then down to E minor, and then straight to B major(?) then back to A minor and to G major again." No. As Tim pointed out, this piece is firmly in E minor. The key signature is the first hint - one sharp indicates either G major or E minor. The fact that the piece starts with an Eminor chord is the second clue. (The upbeat starts ...


13

Couple of ideas... Harmony: Baroque music was the period when harmonic progression (instead of just counter point) started to become a fundamental part of composition (See Functional Tonality). Dissonance is resolved to consonance throughout a phase. Minimalism tends to focus more on a stable harmony, but in both case the Harmony tends to be a very ...


11

The X's are sharp signs, which means this piece is in D. Note, an X can also mean a double sharp, but in this context (throughout the whole piece), it clearly refers to a sharp. The t.'s mean trill (this is confirmed by many recordings that I've listened to). The W's at the end of the line tell where the first note on the next line is. For example, the ...


11

The short answer is yes (and I have occasionally written such music myself). Musical styles never really die, they just fall out of general fashion. It should be noted that there are a couple categories of music that might be considered in an answer. First off, and perhaps least authentic, are what might be termed "fusion" styles -- mixtures of baroque (or ...


8

Some of the music was written quickly in a kind of shorthand. If you as a harpsichordist were expected to write a new piece for flute and harpsichord to be performed tonight, you would probably just write a lead sheet for the harpsichord part and wing it from that. The Baroque equivalent is "figured bass": just the bass notes with numbers indicating the ...


8

Yes, dynamic changes are predominantly achieved by choosing different stops. No, baroque music virtually never specifies which precise stops to pull. The most you can expect is something general such as "Sur les flûtes", or "organo pleno" - and even this doesn't mean what you might think (almost never "all existing stops", usually something more like "stops ...


8

The point of counterpoint is to make voices have harmonic dependence while having rhythmic and contour independence. i.e. The voices are independent, but all function harmonically. There are parallel 5ths between the bass and the first violin, but the bass and the violin are very dependent on each other at this point so they move together as one unit instead ...


8

I hope no one minds that I got curious, and did a bit of digging into this on my own. I discovered what appears to be an excellent resource answering this very question. The book is entitled Between Modes and Keys: German Theory, 1592-1802 by Joel Lester (1989). I do not have access to a copy of the book, but I've been able to see several relevant portions ...


6

Age: Here's the download page. This pdf is the first one (#20529), and there it says it's from ~1733. Locatelli was still alive then so it could very well be the first print. With the red, green, and blue markings I agree with the others; we have sharps, trills, and continuation indicators (showing the first note of the next line) The purple markings also ...


6

It's a baroque trumpet, basically a historical version of a trumpet without valves. Probably they hold it like that because that was the way it was held at that time (think of musicians on a tower, announcing the arrival of the king or stuff like that...)


5

About his development as a composer and the links with his 2 older brothers Johann-Christof and Johann-Jacob. Yes JS was exposed very early to music, music practice and various instruments. He and his brothers were expected to master various instruments and to play ex tempore and generally become proficient in the family's trade, go to other members of the ...


5

Learning to improvise in the style that Baroque musicians used at that time is quite a deep field of study. It's what we call "historically-informed performance practice." If you have a score that has the originally-published markings for turns, trills and ornaments, then there are specific rules on what notes to play. There is certainly room for a little ...


5

Or you can always buy the book. Quantz did in fact write what many consider the definitive book on playing the baroque flute and since you are playing a piece written by him I don't see how you can go wrong following his advice. Google 'Quantz on playing the flute.' I quick note I do not have the quote handy but to paraphrase Quantz, "repeated passages ...


5

From the Grove Online article on Mode by the late, noted musicologist Harold Powers: "[Johan Mattheson's Das neu-eröffnete Orchestre listed] the 24 major and minor keys, [which had been] first set out as a whole in 1711, only two years earlier, in Heinichen’s Neu erfundene und gründliche Anweisung … des General-Basses." Powers quotes Mattheson specifically ...


4

Music Minus One for Recorder The Music Minus One company sells a large collection of backing accompaniment tracks on CD along with sheet music for playing solo recorder. The link above is for Baroque music for recorder; they also have Renaissance music for recorder, and a larger collection of many other musical styles. I noted that they sell one collection ...


4

1). Whenever a composer makes use of counterpoint within the context of a tonal chord progression, or writes a fugue, the composer is more or less going straight back to the compositional technique of the Baroque composers such as J. S. Bach, G. F. Handel, or Telemann. So there are quite a few examples of these compositional techniques in 20th and 21st ...


3

When the key sig. is one sharp, the key will be Gmaj., or its relative minor Em.Here, he's using mainly Emin. with the melodic preferred, as in notes 6 and 7 raised for an upward direction of tune, and left natural when the tune descends. It was the usual way in the Baroque period. If one is in G/Em, then one will use D, C, Am and B (or Bm) for the harmony. ...


3

Two answers: 1) You order to your heart's content and wallet's tolerance from The Early Music Workshop of New England, the retail shop of The Von Huene Workshop, makers of some of the very finest recorders. If you're overwhelmed by the variety of choices at that link, allow me to recommend picking up the phone and calling them when they're open, and asking ...


3

Take a look at Duets for One (duetsforone.com) where you'll find some beautiful baroque music recorded and pdf sheet musc for you to play along with in your practise time. There are some free samples on there to try before you buy.


3

In IMSLP it is possible to select by instrument. Unfortunately the repertoire there is not overwhelming and one has to recognize the desired period(s) oneself. More of an idea, what exists, can be found at score shops like Sheet Music Plus. Good news is, that there is really a lot. In Renaissance there was no strict instrument assignment, so scores for ...


3

I don't believe that there is special name. In late renaissance/early baroque the assignment of fixed instruments was quite unusual, since there were plenty of alternatives (crumhorns, hurdy-gurdys and whatever) and the scores had to adjust to what the playing amateurs had at hand. The lute is surely replaceable by harpsichord or any other continuo ...


3

Yes, they are, and many authorities seem to consider this so utterly obvious that they never even mention it. (Tripped me up big time when doing a music test right after changing schools, once.)


3

Much of Bach's education in composition came from him making hand copies of many musical scores, as music was not mass-printed at the time. Having mastered the Baroque notions of counterpoint and developing motives, combined with his known skill at improvising in the style, why would he seek to give up mastery of a style to be mediocre at a new one? As to ...


3

I can recommend "Performance Practices in Classic Piano Music" by Sandra Rosenblum. This book deals with how piano music was played in the classical period--Mozart, Haydn, early Beethoven, Clementi, etc. The author has synthesized treatises from that era with illustrations from the music, and given her own opinions on various problems of interpretation. I ...


3

You are absolutely right in saying that both have functional harmony/resolve dissonances but it is in fact more useful in drawing comparisons to compare both of these styles with everything in between them. For example, the shift over the Classical and Romantic periods tended to shift, harmonically, towards countering listeners' expectations over a very ...


3

Bach received instruction form his older brother, who was a student of Pachelbel. Bach copied a lot of music of other composers: Buxtehude (famously), Couperin, Frescobaldi, Kerl, Froberger, Pachelbel and many others. Regarding the wide range of influences from German (both North and South), Italian and French music, I don't know that it was that unusual. ...


3

It seems that available instrumentists (more than instruments) were key as well as a figure of the composer as an individualistic and total master of the music he writes. The development of cellists' virtuosity (such as Joseph Franz Weigl, friend of Haydn, Josef Fiala, Josef Reicha (friend of Mozart) and later the Duport brothers and Romberg) has been ...


3

Along with the German theorists like Lippius cited in other answers, English musicians and theorists from quite an early date also divided the keys or 'tones' into two categories based on the major or minor quality of the third above the final. At least in the seventeenth century, however, they did not use the terms 'major' and 'minor', but rather 'sharp' ...


3

It sounds like a mouth harp, which is sometimes colloquially referred to as a jew's harp (although it has nothing to do with Jews). Here is an article on the instrument fron Wikipedia.



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