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15

Arco (which is not an abbreviation) means to return to bowing after pizzicato (abbreviated pizz.) or col legno. Pizzicato means you pluck the strings with your fingers instead of using the bow, col legno using the wooden backside of the bow instead of the hairs. Ten. is short for tenuto which means holding. In Beethoven it probably means you should hold the ...


11

As is the case with many classical pieces of absolute music, the subtitle of this piano sonata was not attributed by the composer. (See also the Chopin preludes and etudes -- he saw his music expressly as non-programmatic, but many of these pieces have gained "nicknames" such as "Revolutionary", "Winter Wind" from performers and listeners over the years.) ...


9

This chord is known as a German Augmented Sixth Chord. There are a few types of Augmented Sixth Chords. The German Aug6 chord is enharmonically equivalent to a Dominant 7 chord, as Tim mentioned. The core of the Aug6 chord is the augmented sixth interval, Cb to A in the above example, and is built starting on b6. The tonic is the third note that makes up ...


9

The portion of Amadeus to which you refer is unfortunately a rather accurate depiction of a practice that has thankfully passed, that of using pounding large staff on stage to keep time. Jean-Baptiste Lully was literally an unfortunate casualty of this practice. As for Rubato, the Harvard Dictionary of Music offers two related definitions. The main ...


7

This is very much a matter of taste. You emphasize different things and get different interpretations. Others may love it, others may hate it. The most important thing is that it "works", but it can work in so many different ways. Just as an example, there's a temporary change of key in the section with the repeated bass notes. Say you want to emphasize the ...


5

In order to answer your question, the question itself needs to be modified. To correct your thought, the Romantic Period did not occur specifically during Beethoven's lifetime, so it could therefore not have happened during his "middle" period. It is important to understand that when talking about labeling a period of music is to label a zeitgeist of ...


4

Because of its high influence on all of the symphonic (and not only symphonic) compositions as such. According to the same Wikipedia article that You've mentioned (see the Influence section): Many later composers of the Romantic period and beyond were influenced specifically by Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. With regards to the Symphony genre: In this ...


4

There was absolutely no need for the Es to have a flat sign. In the previous bar, they were natural, and the bar line would make the Eb stand again, as in the key signature.This is something found in lots of music - the composer being kind and reminding us. The Cb, however, is the same note as a B, but technically must be written as a Cb.If written as a B ...


4

You've already given an example where the progression is handled differently, and from one of the great masters of history at that. (Granted, one who was famous for saying "Not allowed? Then I'll allow it!", but still... Beethoven!) "Must follow" can only be true or false within the framework of a particular theory of harmony, and since there is no such ...


3

This will always be subjective, but I'd say subtle tempo changes are probably best (and yes, I'm aware that's a subjectively interpreted answer in itself!) You want to demonstrate an awareness of the tempo changes, you want to give the listener the sense of that tempo change, but without taking it to extremes. Practice until you have control over the tempo ...


3

The defining point lies somewhere between the Third Symphony and the Fifth Symphony. In particular, I would argue that it's the Fourth Piano Concerto where Beethoven makes the most radical break from Classical to Romantic music, inasmuch as the harmonic freedom exploited in late Mozart and in Beethoven's earlier works is combined with breaking structural ...


3

It's easier to identify Chopin, since he developed a very personal style. For example, if there is strong chromaticism, it's probably Chopin. But it should be noted that, toward the end of his life, Beethoven too started composing in a more chromatic manner. Listen to the Adagio of op. 106 or the Arioso in op. 110. It doesn't seem like Beethoven at all: it's ...


2

One piece which is often mentioned is Beethoven's 3rd symphony. I don't think harmony alone could be a defining factor. Bach already has some pretty wild stuff. There's an extremely dissonant chord-progression piece (or section of a piece) by him, but I don't remember what it is (it's not the chromatic fantasie and fugue).


2

In the previous bar, you can see that the E is natural for that bar. On the next bar Beethoven makes it again Eb, that's why you see the flat there. For the Cb thing,take a look at this thread: Purpose of double-sharps and double-flats It's pretty similar. An example to make you understand it is: isn't G double sharp an A?


1

Theoretical characteristics and harmonic treatment are specific to each musical period. Armed with this knowledge, you can interpret when a piece was written by only studying the music. You must remember this when you are comparing other composers' works with your studies. Your last couple questions concerned Baroque counterpoint, and in this question you ...


1

Something tell me it's linked to Chinese Whispers. In the same way a story is reworded by whoever tells it to their convenience, a script is reworked according to the tastes of who's going to perform it. The difference of a semitone is strangely noticeable in any music, and makes a difference to how to it sounds. The composer's true intention we will likely ...



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