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9

A single bassline can be harmonized in a number of different ways. Assuming you are working only with diatonic triads (three note chords that require no accidentals), you'll typically have three options for your harmony for each note. In the key of G major, those options look like this: G: I, vi6, IV64 A: ii, vii°6, V64 B: iii, I6, vi64 C: IV, ii6, ...


9

These are known as stickings. Use only one row of stickings at a time. Depending on context, a repeat sign as well as a set of alternate stickings could mean either to play one sticking and then switch to the other on the second time, or to choose a sticking but use the same sticking throughout. Your no. 8 example, for instance offers a basic alternating ...


7

As you know, the II V I progression is the most important progression in jazz. Since there is a very strong root motion of a descending perfect fifth, not only between V and I, but also between II and V, this II-V-progression has become an independent unit, which is frequently used without the need to resolve to the related I chord. It is important to ...


6

Casey Rule gave a fine answer, I just want to point out a few things about harmonizing in general and you should be aware of while trying to harmonize a bass line. iii chords are quite rare in a major key, in fact in all my classical theory studies I don't remember analyzing anything that used any type of iii chord in a major key. While vii° is a viable ...


5

The earliest two references I can find of what are now known as deceptive cadences originate with Josquin des Prez's Missa Una musque de Buscaya (listed without a date on Wikipedia, which only fleetingly mentions it under a different spelling, suggesting that his authorship is doubtful) and Francesco Spinacino's arrangement of Fortuna dun gran tempo. I was ...


4

This is certainly not universally accepted, but I say a half-step isn't really a fixed entity; rather there are a couple of different "half"-steps of different size that can serve different purposes. That particular leading vii-I step, according to some performers – Pablo Casals was perhaps the most radical propagator of this idea – should be ...


4

One important factor that influences how good these progressions sound is the number of common tones between the two successive chords. If we consider vii°-I, there are no common tones between the chords ({B,D,F} vs. {C,E,G}) so all the voices must move, making it a bit rough. On the other hand, if we look at V-I, we see that there is one common tone ...


3

Wikipedia has a nice explanation for what a cadence is: A harmonic cadence is a progression of (at least) two chords that concludes a phrase, section, or piece of music. There have to be at least two chords to create a cadence. But in your example Imaj7-I, there is only one chord. Just because you remove the major 7th, the chord doesn't change; it's ...


3

In minor the cadences are defined the following way: Half: Any -> V(7) Authentic: V(7) -> i Deceptive: V(7)-> VI The 7th in the V chord is optional. If you know you are in the key of G minor then building the chords shouldn't be a problem. This exercise seems it want you to understand what a cadence is and what a related chord(i.e. chords that have a ...


3

In Bach's time, the cadential six-four chord was treated as an appoggiatura grouping; the root and third had to resolve downward and therefore were never doubled. This rule was followed by most composers of chorales for some time thereafter and thus is included in all introductory harmony texts. By Mozart's time, the cadential six-four was established as an ...


3

It seems like every theory program has a different name for this Ic construction. I admit I have never seen it called that, though I have seen a variety of other names, including I6/4, V6/4, and just plain not labeling the chord. Nevertheless, the idea is the same. The chord labeled Ic is not a functional chord. Rather, it is a double suspension over the ...


3

Well, the reductive answer is that there's nothing special about it and that the only thing that makes a leading tone "want" to resolve to the tonic is hundreds of years of musical convention, since this tendency exists in a Western scale but not necessarily in other scales. The tuning of the Western scale has changed a lot over the course of those hundreds ...


3

It is half cadence, but I will try to explain it to you as simply as I can: It will not give the listener the 'ending' feel. The ending feel will be on the V-I. The way someone listens to the V7/V - V is like this: Uh? This is a really dissonant chord (V7/V) No wait, it wasn't dissonant; it sounds good with this one (V) But because the V has the ...


3

Does a seventh chord always have to function as a secondary dominant/cadence? No; this isn't really the case in modern music (including but not limited to pop, rock, jazz etc). I'll take Jazz as a reference point, because jazzists make every chord a 7th chord. You can add another third in any triad (chord), and you would have a 7th chord. This won't ...


2

Try Twentieth-Century Harmony: Creative Aspects and Practice by Vincent Persichetti. While it is not based on functional harmony, it has a section that specifically addresses the sounds made by combining different triads, as well as tetrachords, and it gives literal descriptions of how these chords "sound" ("acidic" and other descriptive adjectives). Also, ...


2

Secondary dominants were classified as "modulations" by 18th and 19th century music theorists, and the term "transient modulation" was used when the modulation only lasted for the two chords in question, but in the 20th century they were re-classified as "secondary dominants" which could appear before a chord on any degree of the scale. Aurally, you don't ...


2

Let's take a scale. Your example is most likely in the D minor scale. The V of the D minor scale is A7. Let's take the A major scale. The V of the A major scale is E7. So, what the composer in your example is doing, is to 'leave' from the D minor scale for a little while and 'go' to the A major scale. It is pretty common to use more than one scale in a ...


2

To me it seems like a half cadence. A7 appears before as well as the V of Dm. So my guess is that A7 here doesn't work as a tonic, but as a dominant (of some kind). Half cadence (imperfect cadence or semicadence): any cadence ending on V, whether preceded by V of V, ii, vi, IV, or I—or any other chord. Because it sounds incomplete or suspended, the half ...


2

This is actually something that I stumbled upon a few years back and explored quite a bit, even extending it to a VI-II-V-I with bVI(minor or dominant)-II-bV-I. I think the sound is very interesting and clearly not common, so it has some unique characteristics compared to most of what we hear. There are, however, a few issues with treating this as a true ...


1

Does a seventh chord always have to function as a secondary dominant/cadence? In traditional western harmony dominant seventh chords are reserved mostly for dominants and secondary dominants while fully diminished seventh chords have a similarly dominant function. However in romantic-and-onward harmony seventh chords (as well as 9th, 11th, etc.) are ...


1

Taking C as the key, there's also Bo (inc. Do,Fo and Abo) that leads nicely to the tonic, C. And the triton of G (the dominant), which is C#7.They're probably not so common as they sound a little strange to people who are immersed in only Pop music. V and V7 are obviously far more commonly used, so it's down to familiarity. Which, in jazz players, will often ...


1

As a cadence, it's called imperfect - the opposite of perfect, it doesn't quite arrive back at home like most of us expect. In Satin doll, instead, it goes to other ii-Vs which further confound the listener who feels a modulation to another key. It does actually land at the end of the sequence on bar 7. The middle section then moves to subdom F, then ...


1

Any dominant seventh chord is crying out to resolve to a chord a fourth above. As in G7 will (apart from in blues!) most often be followed by C. In your example, the A7 will move to a D or Dm. A fourth above. The concept is common in music. Take a piece in C. It goes to E, then A, then D, then G, and back to C. All up a fourth. Feels and sounds right, ...


1

You've stumbled onto secondary dominants. In the key of D, yes, "E" would be the second degree, however, when spelling the chord: E, G#, B, D, the G# is not diatonic to D major. Essentially, the E7 functions like a V chord in the key of A, and then A7 of course functions as a V7 back to D. To clarify: A secondary dominant is any chord other than the ...


1

You nearly answered it yourself. Calling the last chord V makes it unfinished - an imperfect cadence (half). What happened to get to the V doesn't really come into the equation, although, as Bob says, that in itself may be considered a perfect cadence - but only when the part is in that key. As in the key of G - which it isn't.


1

Assuming that you still feel C Major as the home key, and haven't modulated to G Major, this is a half-cadence (imperfect). Although, I see why you are asking the question; the movement V7/V to V is harmonically the same as a V7-I perfect cadence in the dominant, G Major. But it is functionally different with respect to C Major.


1

"...the particular role/reputation of each chord in a movement..." The key term you're looking for here is functional harmony. In a typical harmonic analysis, you determine what the chords are in terms of their root (e.g. 4th scale degree) and their quality (e.g. major chord, with a major 7th) to determine the name of the chord (e.g. IVmaj7). In functional ...


1

The vocabularly allowed for cadences in AMEB grade 4 theory are the following chords: I, ii, IV, V and vi. You are not allowed to use V7 until grade 6 theory otherwise it would be ideal for the final cadence. You are also allowed to harmonize other parts of the melody with first inversion chords but not the cadences so the chords that you are allowed to use ...


1

Two thoughts: Look at the linear shape of the melody. Notice implied harmonies for each measure. Consider which notes might be important (clear chord tones) and which ones are less important (neighbor and / or passing tones). Look at how the melody is accented agogically. Notice which notes have longer durations than others. In a melody, longer notes ...


1

It might be easiest to work backwards -- the most obvious cadence point is going to be the last few notes. You can bet the last chord is expected to be the I, D major. Prior to that you would expect a V(7) or occasionally the IV. We see an E in the melody so assume V7, or A7 in our key of D. Just before that is an F#, what might that be? It doesn't ...



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