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We first need to categorize each interval, assign it a "consonance amount". That's the first problem we find. In the case of the fourth, for example, some consider it perfect consonance, and others consider it a dissonance, depending context (and who you ask). For simplicity, let's define ours based on Wikipedia's: 1: Perfect consonances: unison, octave, ...


4

For your specific points: 1) For most/all* instruments, the amplitude of the partials decreases as the partial number (i.e. frequency goes up). Thus, for almost all musical sounds there is "more of" the (first) octave and the fifth and less of the higher harmonics. So adding a second sound whose fundamental is at one of the lower harmonics reinforces ...



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