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20

First off, everything is allowed in music. Whether it's appropriate can be another question, but especially in rock most people basically go by “if it sounds good, it's ok”. Even by the rules of classical counterpoint, it's not forbidden for two voices to share a single note, as long as they don't move parallel in unison. In two-voice ...


15

What education did Mozart receive in order to know basic harmony rules, like consecutive fifths are bad? As pointed out, he was educated by his father. He would have received basic training in Rule of the Octave, counterpoint, etc. Instruction in Mozart's time was essentially in voice leading, not harmony: harmony training didn't really exist until ...


9

Melodic Inversion Where the original melody goes up by an interval, the inverted melody goes down by the same interval. Sometimes you do it where you keep the same number of semi-tones (sometimes you do a "diatonic" inversion and just keep the scale degree). It's a technique for taking given melodic content and constructing more, related melodic content. ...


9

I think, Dom, that you would need to do a few things: Truncate the tonic - it will always be root and third. (This kind of truncation wasn't all that unusual in late Renaissance and early Baroque modal polyphony, by the way, even though the Locrian mode itself wasn't used at all.) Borrow procedures from the Phrygian mode, which is the closest in ...


9

To amplify Dom's reply, it is indeed a D♯. What is going on here is that Mozart is using an augmented sixth chord (specifically the French sixth) that is being used as dominant preparation. Normally how a French sixth works is that the upper notes form V7 of V (with a missing fifth), while the bass falls a half step from ♭6 to 5. It is a variant of the ...


9

As topo morto already commented, it doesn't really make sense to consider pop as just an evolution of classical music. It has lots of influences from folk, blues, jazz that don't really make sense from a classical-harmony perspective. To a large degree, you might also just sum pop up as “relax, focus on keeping the melody simple&catchy and then ...


8

This is called Transposition. For instance, if you are in C major and have this melody: C-F-E-G-C and you move to E major scale, the melody would be: E-A-G#-B-E. You have to keep the intervals the same (A perfect fourth remains a perfect fourth etc), but the notes change.


8

It's a D# because it's functioning as a D#. In the three measures you can see the line goes E -> D# -> E. It's acting much more leading tone like than 7th like as if it were truly an F7 the next note would either be the same or resolve down. The fact the harmony could be interpreted as an F7 is kind of a moot point as the next measure lands squarely on Am ...


8

The most commonly-quoted theory on how the timbre of a sound affects consonance/dissonance is Helmhotz' proposition that beat frequencies between the individual partials of notes cause dissonance, and the coincidence of partials resulted in consonance. This was later expanded on by Plomp and Levelt's findings (for example, that dissonance is eliminated when ...


7

One of the central harmonic (and melodic) innovations of early 20th-century music was the conflation of the linear and harmonic dimensions. That is to say, a collection of pitches might just as easily be a motive or a melody as it might be a chord. In the common-practice world the linear, melodic dimension tends to be dominated by whole and half steps while ...


7

As you know, the II V I progression is the most important progression in jazz. Since there is a very strong root motion of a descending perfect fifth, not only between V and I, but also between II and V, this II-V-progression has become an independent unit, which is frequently used without the need to resolve to the related I chord. It is important to ...


7

The key you are in defines the harmony, what chords you naturally have access to, and what the tonic is. From a single chord alone you cannot determine for sure either the key or the tonic, especially for a minor chord which doesn't have as strong a pull towards other chords as, say, a dominant chord. There are a few possibilities depending which key you ...


7

Because the notes might be 3, but they are repeated. For instance, here is an open E major chord: As you can see, the notes are only 3 (E,G#,B), but the root (E) is being played three times and the 5th (B) is being played twice.


7

That's Coltrane changes (before Coltrane actually used them in Giant Steps etc.), where the roots of the tonal centers move in (enharmonic) major thirds (either up or down): [Bb] -> (down M3) [Gb] -> (down M3) [D] -> (up M3) [Gb] Returning to the key of F is not part of the cycle anymore, it's just going back to the original key. This is what the ...


6

The author seems to be actually attempting to connect all the keys and it may be unintended that there are keys that are disconnected as in the paragraph after he starts talking about modulation and changing keys. When and if the key of the music changes-- a process called modulation-- this will always be from on the circle to another... This can be more ...


6

Either one, really. It depends on the voice leading to a great extent. (I'm assuming common practice voice leading here.) Let's have a look: The first example holds the common note (G) in the descant, and uses the usual G-C drop in the bass. The neatest place for D to go in such a case is to E; otherwise you're faced with a bare fifths sonority (which can ...


6

It depends on what you are trying to do. If you are using the chords as harmonic colour, parallel triads work fine. If you need some independence between the voices, parallel octaves and fifths aren't so good. Both with and without are perfectly acceptable, and have been since the end of the 19th century, provided you accomplish what you are setting out to ...


6

As some of the other answers have eluded to, there are two basic problems with your question: The first is the question of how you generalize a "tritone" in a non-12-TET based system. One possibility is to interpret it literally as three whole tones (which then begs the question as to how you define a whole tone in a non 12-tone system). Another ...


6

"it seems to me like dissonance can be used like a theme for music." What is the proper understanding of the use of dissonance in composition? First off, dissonance is the general term for a clash or tension in a single chord or sound, such as one might have playing a half step (minor second) or a tritone (diminished 5th, augmented 4th). Consonance, ...


6

It's right I think how it's explained may be confusing you though. Think of an open chord as a chord that you can squeezes another chord tone into (in this case a C, E, or G because it's a C major chord) while a closed chord you cannot. Here's a picture of all the voices together to make it more clear: If you look at this you'll notice the first can ...


6

There are some aspects of your example that go a little beyond the norms of 18th-century common practice such as the 9th chord and the move to a second inversion vi chord, but that's more complicated to assess than merely "mistake" or "not mistake." The passing tone in the bass at the same time as the 9–8 resolution in the alto (turning it into a highly ...


6

The notation builds up by intervals from the bass in close position (although you don't need to realise it in close position). For sevenths, you don't need all three intervals to specify: typically just the two most characteristic are used. In this case, you have an inversion of a minor seventh chord on ii that has a fifth and sixth from the bass in close ...


6

If I'm understanding the terms you are using correctly, I think the notation you are looking for is "G#/H#" in Croatian, or "G#/B#" in English. In classical chord symbols, inversions are indicated with the actual intervals present (that are not 3rds) after the chord name. So a G# major chord with B# on the bottom would be called a G#6 chord (Not to be ...


5

There is no "have to" in music. There are common patterns and conventions, but the only rule is, if it sounds good, it is good. it doesn't sound out of place at the time ... and therefore it's OK. I have no idea what the implications of this may be if I was to try and apply EQ, or add certain effects, and so on EQ generally has very little effect ...


5

It sounds like you are starting to study harmony and music theory, though. As you progress, things will start to make more sense to you. What makes Shostakovich select such dissonant notes freely? One way of looking at this: composers in a certain period or style eventually start to chafe with the rules of their period, and start to push the envelope. ...


5

Look what the score is doing: you have an oscillation rising from F♯ in the initial RH part, moving up to C♯, but artfully dodging A♯. At the same time, you have an accompaniment that consists largely of the fifth D-A alternating with the auxiliary notes E-G. The entire section is acting like an elaboration of a D major chord in a kind of quasi-Lydian ...


5

Would this fall into the boundaries of harmony? The answer is simple and it's yes. There are many kinds of harmony. The blues harmony is different than the jazz which is different than the classical etc.


5

A common place for this to occur is IV to iv, often then returning to I, which makes (in your F key) the Db a semitone from C, and Bb a semitone from A, both found in the F chord. The F, of course, remains static. It's the same sort of semitone pull that makes V7 work so well as a dominant, to I. 'Major to minor' is one way to describe it. Ironically, in ...


5

You will find that most chords can be derived from more than one scale - usually this will change the chord's function. Consider the humble C major chord. It can be the Tonic (I) chord in C, the Subdominant (IV) in G and the Dominant (V) in F. The same is true for other major and minor chords. In other words, it's not enough to look at the root and type of ...



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