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20

First off, everything is allowed in music. Whether it's appropriate can be another question, but especially in rock most people basically go by “if it sounds good, it's ok”. Even by the rules of classical counterpoint, it's not forbidden for two voices to share a single note, as long as they don't move parallel in unison. In two-voice ...


15

What education did Mozart receive in order to know basic harmony rules, like consecutive fifths are bad? As pointed out, he was educated by his father. He would have received basic training in Rule of the Octave, counterpoint, etc. Instruction in Mozart's time was essentially in voice leading, not harmony: harmony training didn't really exist until ...


13

I wish I could point you to some scientific studies; I cannot. But I can speak on the basis of a lifetime of my being a semi-professional traditional choral singer and soloist who has a university music school degree in singing. I have extensive experience with a cappella choral singing, with singing accompanied by piano and organ and orchestra, and even ...


9

I think, Dom, that you would need to do a few things: Truncate the tonic - it will always be root and third. (This kind of truncation wasn't all that unusual in late Renaissance and early Baroque modal polyphony, by the way, even though the Locrian mode itself wasn't used at all.) Borrow procedures from the Phrygian mode, which is the closest in ...


9

Melodic Inversion Where the original melody goes up by an interval, the inverted melody goes down by the same interval. Sometimes you do it where you keep the same number of semi-tones (sometimes you do a "diatonic" inversion and just keep the scale degree). It's a technique for taking given melodic content and constructing more, related melodic content. ...


8

This is called Transposition. For instance, if you are in C major and have this melody: C-F-E-G-C and you move to E major scale, the melody would be: E-A-G#-B-E. You have to keep the intervals the same (A perfect fourth remains a perfect fourth etc), but the notes change.


8

It's a D# because it's functioning as a D#. In the three measures you can see the line goes E -> D# -> E. It's acting much more leading tone like than 7th like as if it were truly an F7 the next note would either be the same or resolve down. The fact the harmony could be interpreted as an F7 is kind of a moot point as the next measure lands squarely on Am ...


8

To amplify Dom's reply, it is indeed a D♯. What is going on here is that Mozart is using an augmented sixth chord (specifically the French sixth) that is being used as dominant preparation. Normally how a French sixth works is that the upper notes form V7 of V (with a missing fifth), while the bass falls a half step from ♭6 to 5. It is a variant of the ...


8

The most commonly-quoted theory on how the timbre of a sound affects consonance/dissonance is Helmhotz' proposition that beat frequencies between the individual partials of notes cause dissonance, and the coincidence of partials resulted in consonance. This was later expanded on by Plomp and Levelt's findings (for example, that dissonance is eliminated when ...


7

It's figured bass and while typically associated with analysis and chords the meaning typically differs. As you said typically when thinking in chords or analysis in a V9 the 7th is implied. However, in figured bass only the typical triad is implied unless otherwise noted so just putting the 9 would make the harmony add9 instead of dominant 9. So yes it is ...


7

One of the central harmonic (and melodic) innovations of early 20th-century music was the conflation of the linear and harmonic dimensions. That is to say, a collection of pitches might just as easily be a motive or a melody as it might be a chord. In the common-practice world the linear, melodic dimension tends to be dominated by whole and half steps while ...


7

As you know, the II V I progression is the most important progression in jazz. Since there is a very strong root motion of a descending perfect fifth, not only between V and I, but also between II and V, this II-V-progression has become an independent unit, which is frequently used without the need to resolve to the related I chord. It is important to ...


7

The key you are in defines the harmony, what chords you naturally have access to, and what the tonic is. From a single chord alone you cannot determine for sure either the key or the tonic, especially for a minor chord which doesn't have as strong a pull towards other chords as, say, a dominant chord. There are a few possibilities depending which key you ...


7

Because the notes might be 3, but they are repeated. For instance, here is an open E major chord: As you can see, the notes are only 3 (E,G#,B), but the root (E) is being played three times and the 5th (B) is being played twice.


7

That's Coltrane changes (before Coltrane actually used them in Giant Steps etc.), where the roots of the tonal centers move in (enharmonic) major thirds (either up or down): [Bb] -> (down M3) [Gb] -> (down M3) [D] -> (up M3) [Gb] Returning to the key of F is not part of the cycle anymore, it's just going back to the original key. This is what the ...


6

The diminished chord has the function of a dominant chord and wants to go back to the tonic chord (the I chord). For example in the key of C major, Bo would want to go to C. If you're familiar with the concept of the dominant 7th chord (V7) this should make sense as the dominant 7th chord also goes to the tonic the diminished triad is contained within the ...


6

The author seems to be actually attempting to connect all the keys and it may be unintended that there are keys that are disconnected as in the paragraph after he starts talking about modulation and changing keys. When and if the key of the music changes-- a process called modulation-- this will always be from on the circle to another... This can be more ...


6

Either one, really. It depends on the voice leading to a great extent. (I'm assuming common practice voice leading here.) Let's have a look: The first example holds the common note (G) in the descant, and uses the usual G-C drop in the bass. The neatest place for D to go in such a case is to E; otherwise you're faced with a bare fifths sonority (which can ...


6

It depends on what you are trying to do. If you are using the chords as harmonic colour, parallel triads work fine. If you need some independence between the voices, parallel octaves and fifths aren't so good. Both with and without are perfectly acceptable, and have been since the end of the 19th century, provided you accomplish what you are setting out to ...


6

As some of the other answers have eluded to, there are two basic problems with your question: The first is the question of how you generalize a "tritone" in a non-12-TET based system. One possibility is to interpret it literally as three whole tones (which then begs the question as to how you define a whole tone in a non 12-tone system). Another ...


6

It's right I think how it's explained may be confusing you though. Think of an open chord as a chord that you can squeezes another chord tone into (in this case a C, E, or G because it's a C major chord) while a closed chord you cannot. Here's a picture of all the voices together to make it more clear: If you look at this you'll notice the first can ...


6

There are some aspects of your example that go a little beyond the norms of 18th-century common practice such as the 9th chord and the move to a second inversion vi chord, but that's more complicated to assess than merely "mistake" or "not mistake." The passing tone in the bass at the same time as the 9–8 resolution in the alto (turning it into a highly ...


6

The notation builds up by intervals from the bass in close position (although you don't need to realise it in close position). For sevenths, you don't need all three intervals to specify: typically just the two most characteristic are used. In this case, you have an inversion of a minor seventh chord on ii that has a fifth and sixth from the bass in close ...


5

There are already some good answers, but I'd like to add an important term for a concept which is able to explain really a lot of occurrences of non-diatonic chords in popular music (and not only there). The concept is called modal interchange [1], which is the borrowing of chords from parallel tonalities. The borrowing of chords from the parallel minor key ...


5

I think there are some assumptions in your question that are false. First: Quartal harmony emerges and starts getting used extensively in Western music in the late-19th-, early-20th century. At the same time, many composers were also exploring different ideas about how chords can connect, including chord planing, which involves holding the same chord ...


5

One of the first things to observe is that the tritone F#-C should be avoided, because it suggests a dominant sound (leading to G). Consequently, don't use the II7 chord (D7 in the case of C lydian), and don't use IVm7(b5) (F#m7(b5) in C lydian) either, because both contain the tritone. Note that the triad II (D major triad) can be used. Progressions in ...


5

It sounds like you are starting to study harmony and music theory, though. As you progress, things will start to make more sense to you. What makes Shostakovich select such dissonant notes freely? One way of looking at this: composers in a certain period or style eventually start to chafe with the rules of their period, and start to push the envelope. ...


5

There is no "have to" in music. There are common patterns and conventions, but the only rule is, if it sounds good, it is good. it doesn't sound out of place at the time ... and therefore it's OK. I have no idea what the implications of this may be if I was to try and apply EQ, or add certain effects, and so on EQ generally has very little effect ...


5

Look what the score is doing: you have an oscillation rising from F♯ in the initial RH part, moving up to C♯, but artfully dodging A♯. At the same time, you have an accompaniment that consists largely of the fifth D-A alternating with the auxiliary notes E-G. The entire section is acting like an elaboration of a D major chord in a kind of quasi-Lydian ...


5

Would this fall into the boundaries of harmony? The answer is simple and it's yes. There are many kinds of harmony. The blues harmony is different than the jazz which is different than the classical etc.



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