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I have come across the word "sonority" as an expressive instruction on flute music by French composers such as Phillip Gaubert. How does a word used to describe chordal harmonics translate to playing notes on a single note instrument like the flute? I teach private lessons and I have a hard time explaining a word like this that doesn't have an ...


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Musical notes have frequency which depend on an exponential scale. This means that you can't just "shift" tones on a linear scale. Here is a formula to find the frequency of a musical note dependant on the number of a key on a conventional piano (bottom A (A0) gives n = 1): (taken from here) You then need to use the construction of major and minor chords ...


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I contacted Dr. Tymoczko and asked for an example. His response was Mozart, piano sonata K310 in A minor, 3rd movement, starting at m.211.


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First - you should be aware that Tymoczko's usage here is not standard. The term fauxbourdon is usually only used to refer to the late Medieval/early Renaissance technique of almost pervasively harmonizing in this manner. This is all before tonal harmony, and fauxbourdon can be employed in any mode, though care needs to be taken to use B-flat or B as ...


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I wish I could point you to some scientific studies; I cannot. But I can speak on the basis of a lifetime of my being a semi-professional traditional choral singer and soloist who has a university music school degree in singing. I have extensive experience with a cappella choral singing, with singing accompanied by piano and organ and orchestra, and even ...


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I disagree with your premise that a mathematically perfect tuning would be somehow preferable and that singers would naturally gravitate towards that. Singing is a learned behavior. We gravitate towards tunings and scales that are familiar from our experience. If I grow up singing along with a piano in common tuning, playing major and minor scales, and then ...


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A progression that defines rock music in a way that is derived from blues music, and you'll see that often, is using the bIII chord in a major key, along with the IV and V (or V7) chord. E.g. E and G. G here fits within de E minor pentatonic scale. It's quite common to see E going to G, and then to A, making a I, bIII, IV progression. You can hear it in ...


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Your question is beautiful and I think there will be more science and research behind it thanks to the advent of the Spectrogram (where you can visualize all the frequencies engaged for a particular sound). Timbre and harmonic invokation are synonymous to me because when you trigger a string on a guitar or piano, or engage a flute's resonant chamber, you ...


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Additional to the answer from topo morto I'd like to mention the book “Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale” from W. Sethares [1]. Beside others, it describes the construction of scales and tone systems for timbres with inharmonic spectra. Even though it is mainly a place theoretic approach I don't see any reason why it shouldn't work also with a theory based on ...


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The notation builds up by intervals from the bass in close position (although you don't need to realise it in close position). For sevenths, you don't need all three intervals to specify: typically just the two most characteristic are used. In this case, you have an inversion of a minor seventh chord on ii that has a fifth and sixth from the bass in close ...


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The symbol is Roman numeral analysis with figured bass which is more than enough information to build the specific chord. It is telling you that the harmony at that point is a minor 7th (from the lower case of the roman numeral & the figured bass) built on the second scale degree (from the value of the Roman numeral) of Gb major (the note before the ...


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The most commonly-quoted theory on how the timbre of a sound affects consonance/dissonance is Helmhotz' proposition that beat frequencies between the individual partials of notes cause dissonance, and the coincidence of partials resulted in consonance. This was later expanded on by Plomp and Levelt's findings (for example, that dissonance is eliminated when ...


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To amplify Dom's reply, it is indeed a D♯. What is going on here is that Mozart is using an augmented sixth chord (specifically the French sixth) that is being used as dominant preparation. Normally how a French sixth works is that the upper notes form V7 of V (with a missing fifth), while the bass falls a half step from ♭6 to 5. It is a variant of the ...


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It's a D# because it's functioning as a D#. In the three measures you can see the line goes E -> D# -> E. It's acting much more leading tone like than 7th like as if it were truly an F7 the next note would either be the same or resolve down. The fact the harmony could be interpreted as an F7 is kind of a moot point as the next measure lands squarely on Am ...



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