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36

It is because the double bass, essentially, comes from a different family of instruments than the cello, viola and violin. This is a controversial assertion among music historians, as these things evolved continously, but many scholars do not consider the double-bass to be a part of the violin family at all. The argument goes like this: About two ...


27

With long open strings, the span to reach notes especially at the nut end would be too much for a lot of players if it retained the 5ths pattern of tuning. Making the tuning in fourths means that the left hand can encompass three notes in a scale and then move across to the next string in the same hand position. That said, it's not difficult to slide up a ...


18

One of the clearest examples is a tablet from Ugarit that is generally labelled h.6. If you search around for Hurrian Hymns, h.6, and Hymn to Nikkal you can see some drawings and photographs. Some of the primary scholars that have written and attempted to decode the notation system are Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, Martin West, Richard Crocker, and ...


12

As far as I can find, it was likely just a really big double bass! Whilst it may appear somewhat equivalent to the octobass - it is different to the maintained examples in the Musée de la Musique and Musical Instrument Museum in that: a) It has 4 strings, rather than 3; b) Octobass's appear to normally have a extension mechanism for the 'fingerings', to ...


11

The double leading-tone cadence is certainly not the "single defining characteristic" of Ars Nova. As to the chronology, Philippe de Vitry (born before Machaut, and one of the "inventors" of Ars Nova, to whom the eponymous treatise "ars nova" is ascribed) used double leading-tones in his isorhythmic motets. See, for example, the end of Tuba sacrae/In ...


10

Léonin and Pérotin were two of the most well-known and advanced composers of early polyphonic music, but they certainly were not the first. It's difficult to say when polyphonic music first emerged because it's origin predates standardized music notation, but its origins are at least a few hundred years before Léonin and Pérotin. A piece was actually just ...


9

Well, the thing to remember is that the harpsichord and organ have no touch sensitivity like piano, and the piano wasn't invented yet. So any kind of keyboard music was written to be played all at the same volume, and composers made the sound fuller or emptier by managing the voicing. If you play a Bach fugue on a piano, you can add dynamics but it won't ...


9

I can think of two reasons: Bass is difficult enough the way it is. If you were to play it like a cello, you would need a) much more frequent position changes, and/or b) a strong, independent and wide-reaching (much wider than on cello with its shorter scale) pinky. I think most bassists never use the pinky on its own at all (or do they?), because a bass ...


7

According to Honegger-Massenkeil, Das Große Lexikon der Musik, published in Freiburg 1982 [an 8 volume reference work], the symbol derived from the semiminima rest. This looks like an uppercase-L turned 90 degrees in clockwise direction hovering between the second and the middle line of a staff counted from the top, so I assume the squigly line was probably ...


7

One of the central harmonic (and melodic) innovations of early 20th-century music was the conflation of the linear and harmonic dimensions. That is to say, a collection of pitches might just as easily be a motive or a melody as it might be a chord. In the common-practice world the linear, melodic dimension tends to be dominated by whole and half steps while ...


6

I can't comment on why the committee decided on those particular sounds as I wasn't there, but I will say that gunshot sound effects are very common in musicals, and until recently it was common for any kind of timing sensitive sound effect to be in a synthesizer book. Now we have laptops and software like QLab so it's more practical for it to be fired from ...


6

According to the MMA, Roland was one of the early proponents of GM and proposed that the GM Sound Set include sound effects for use with games, as was the case with their CM32L sound module.


6

The early history (from about 1500 to 1850) of bass tunings are very variable, with anything from 3 to 6 strings and tunings in anything from thirds to fifths. Reference. In the classical period, the virtuoso Domenico Dragonetti played a 3-string bass tuned C G D an octave below the cello, which was more or less the standard instrument that Haydn, Mozart ...


5

"Are there other examples of common practice period manuscripts, or other documents that provide some indications on how to tune the instrument?" I think you're mostly looking for examples of scores/manuscripts, but as far as "other documents" go, there are certainly period treatises that describe various temperaments. One such example is "Lettre touchant ...


5

If you take a look at music like the two-part inventions and three-part symphonies by Bach, they make a lot of musical sense, and while they are intended as practice pieces, the prevalent problem (and increase of diffuculty when going from inventions to symphonies) is not one of hitting particular combinations of notes at the same time but rather of ...


4

I'm not sure exactly when or how the squiggly-line shape came about, but I do know there is an alternate notation that looks like a backwards eighth-note rest (called a "semiminima rest", as guidot mentions). You can see this shape used in early Baroque manuscripts, and it originates in mensural notation. Based on a review of several manuscripts I found with ...


4

According to my Italian colleague it means (as Édouard commented): The (=I) soloists (=solisti, irregular plural from solista) from Veneto (i. e. the region, from which Venice is the capital).


4

You must not have heard of the Bösendorfer Imperial 290 piano, which has 9 extra notes lower than "A", for a total of 97 keys. The soundboard is 2.9 meters in length. It is a popular model in large churches and concert halls, but it is very expensive at around €150.000. It has been on the market for more than 100 years. The Bösendorfer company is in Vienna, ...


4

Martin Luther, long before he broke with the Catholic Church, believed that music was a form of prayer, through which the people spoke to God and God spoke back. History states that he didn't actively encourage his congregation to sing along until after his publishing of the 95 Theses and his excommunication, but some sources say he encouraged it at ...


4

I'd go with the Venice archive variants, but then, I probably wouldn't go with Longo's edition - he had some tendency to "correct" things. Kenneth Gilbert's Urtext edition (Volume 5 here) goes entirely with Venice. I don't know if K. 208 is to be found in the Münster (Santini) or Parma archives as well (can't find indexes), but then, we lack anything ...


4

In his comment, Patrx2 listed the 8 traditional church modes: Dorian (and Hypodorian), Phrygian (and Hypophrygian), Lydian (and Hypolydian), and Mixolydian (and Hypomixolydian). The "Hypo-" forms are called plagal modes (as opposed to the four authentic modes). The plagal modes have the same "final" (tonic) and the same pitch classes as their corresponding ...


3

Generally, in most music that progresses in phrase lengths that are multiples of 2 bars (which covers a lot of dance music), the odd-numbered bars generally have greater stress than the even-numbered bars. To be precise, the first beats of the odd-numbered bars have more weight than the first beats of the even-numbered bars, and the starting points of ...


3

It's a long time since I was actively involved in the record industry... but back in the 80's we would always do a separate mix without lead vocals, in case it was ever needed for the occasional TV show where the track would be on playback but the vox would be live. The chances are this is still a sensible practise. Motown even went so far as to release a ...


3

The MIDI Manufacturer's Association released the General MIDI Specification for hardware sample players and sample-based keyboard synthesizers in 1991. Read about it at the Wikipedia article, which includes reference links to the actual published specifications. I do not think there is a definitive answer to your question. I believe the industry committee ...


3

Possible duplicate of: Origin of the 'squigly line' used for quarter note rest? There are several scans of manuscripts (from Corelli to Mahler) linked from that page that show many intermediate forms. It seems to have been a gradual evolution due to handwriting, rather than a dictatorial all-at-once change. In addition, each composer had their own ...


3

I'm a left handed guy with nearly 30 years of right handed guitar playing/teaching experience. I've always wondered if I should have learned leftie style. When learning it feels strongly that the fretting hand is the business end. But as you progress you learn what makes the difference between an OK player and a great player with individual style is the ...


3

From highhopes.com "In the 14 th century, the line with a crook attached was called crotchet (pronounced like the crochet lace) which meant crook. The French word for crook was also the origin for the crochet needle, giving rise to the name for crochet lace. This crotchet symbol represents a quarter-note rest." However, neither there nor at ...


3

As far as I can remember, the fourth is far more experimental in character. Considering the restrictions of the cultural climate in the USSR at that time, the fourth would probably not have been deemed as suitable for publication.


3

Vivaldi's Four Seasons is one of the best and earliest examples in music history of what is called programmatic music or tone poems. The instrumental music was written by Vivaldi to tell a specific story which has accompanying words that are written down, not sung. Vivaldi chose the titles for each movement. Vivaldi wrote four poems, one for each movement, ...


3

To answer your question directly, yes, the Goldberg Variations are a continuous musical work. There is no indication in the score of a break or intermission. In fact, there are fermatas over the bar lines after some variations, which is a performance indication. They were meant to be played continuously, and appreciated as a piece of art as a whole. You ...



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