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19

What a great question! From an early historical standpoint, I can think of several cases where this has happened. I'd be interested in more answers, and especially later historical examples. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, accidentals were often not notated, with the composer relying on the performer's knowledge of musica ficta to provide the correct ...


18

One of the clearest examples is a tablet from Ugarit that is generally labelled h.6. If you search around for Hurrian Hymns, h.6, and Hymn to Nikkal you can see some drawings and photographs. Some of the primary scholars that have written and attempted to decode the notation system are Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, Martin West, Richard Crocker, and ...


16

Le quattro stagioni is the original title of this work, which translates to 'The four seasons'. This title was indeed chosen by Vivaldi himself, who deliberately composed the pieces to reflect the mood of each season. The wikipedia article sums the titles up pretty nicely!


14

No, they are not considered consonant in all music cultures. The perception of consonance and dissonance can be different among cultures. The same interval can be perceived (and labeled) differently by different cultures. This is influenced by many factors (and the harmonic series is not the only one!) For example, in medieval times major thirds were ...


12

As far as I can find, it was likely just a really big double bass! Whilst it may appear somewhat equivalent to the octobass - it is different to the maintained examples in the Musée de la Musique and Musical Instrument Museum in that: a) It has 4 strings, rather than 3; b) Octobass's appear to normally have a extension mechanism for the 'fingerings', to ...


11

The double leading-tone cadence is certainly not the "single defining characteristic" of Ars Nova. As to the chronology, Philippe de Vitry (born before Machaut, and one of the "inventors" of Ars Nova, to whom the eponymous treatise "ars nova" is ascribed) used double leading-tones in his isorhythmic motets. See, for example, the end of Tuba sacrae/In ...


11

The short answer is yes (and I have occasionally written such music myself). Musical styles never really die, they just fall out of general fashion. It should be noted that there are a couple categories of music that might be considered in an answer. First off, and perhaps least authentic, are what might be termed "fusion" styles -- mixtures of baroque (or ...


10

Léonin and Pérotin were two of the most well-known and advanced composers of early polyphonic music, but they certainly were not the first. It's difficult to say when polyphonic music first emerged because it's origin predates standardized music notation, but its origins are at least a few hundred years before Léonin and Pérotin. A piece was actually just ...


9

Well, the thing to remember is that the harpsichord and organ have no touch sensitivity like piano, and the piano wasn't invented yet. So any kind of keyboard music was written to be played all at the same volume, and composers made the sound fuller or emptier by managing the voicing. If you play a Bach fugue on a piano, you can add dynamics but it won't ...


8

You would think the German, French, and Italian 6th chords are so named by the historical context in which they first appeared. (See also Neapolitan sixth chord, and the "Tristan Chord".) However, the more I research this, it appears the names German, French, and Italian are likely arbitrary. Here are two citations that support this: 1) "...theorists ...


8

I hope no one minds that I got curious, and did a bit of digging into this on my own. I discovered what appears to be an excellent resource answering this very question. The book is entitled Between Modes and Keys: German Theory, 1592-1802 by Joel Lester (1989). I do not have access to a copy of the book, but I've been able to see several relevant portions ...


7

According to Honegger-Massenkeil, Das Große Lexikon der Musik, published in Freiburg 1982 [an 8 volume reference work], the symbol derived from the semiminima rest. This looks like an uppercase-L turned 90 degrees in clockwise direction hovering between the second and the middle line of a staff counted from the top, so I assume the squigly line was probably ...


7

All modal jazz means is that the harmony is deliberately static so that the players can stretch out against it as well as with it in a more elastic fashion. It's not really something you could even say was "invented". While "Kind of Blue", put it on the map, there are boat loads of tunes preceding that album that are modal in at least sections. "Dark Eyes" ...


6

Music Theory is an academic discipline that throughout history has been developed in order to better understand the music being written and played by composers and performers. As such, it is also an incredibly useful tool in teaching all kinds of music to beginners. In many cases, the composers of the day were teaching students to follow rules that they ...


6

According to the MMA, Roland was one of the early proponents of GM and proposed that the GM Sound Set include sound effects for use with games, as was the case with their CM32L sound module.


6

I can't comment on why the committee decided on those particular sounds as I wasn't there, but I will say that gunshot sound effects are very common in musicals, and until recently it was common for any kind of timing sensitive sound effect to be in a synthesizer book. Now we have laptops and software like QLab so it's more practical for it to be fired from ...


6

One of the central harmonic (and melodic) innovations of early 20th-century music was the conflation of the linear and harmonic dimensions. That is to say, a collection of pitches might just as easily be a motive or a melody as it might be a chord. In the common-practice world the linear, melodic dimension tends to be dominated by whole and half steps while ...


5

Music notation is presciptive. Generally speaking, if you see a note on the middle staff line of a treble clef, and there is no key signature, you're expected to play a B, and not something else, like a B# or A. So the pitches and time values are quite clearly prescribed. The remaining squabble, then, is whether other things are to be prescribed, like ...


5

"Are there other examples of common practice period manuscripts, or other documents that provide some indications on how to tune the instrument?" I think you're mostly looking for examples of scores/manuscripts, but as far as "other documents" go, there are certainly period treatises that describe various temperaments. One such example is "Lettre touchant ...


5

From the Grove Online article on Mode by the late, noted musicologist Harold Powers: "[Johan Mattheson's Das neu-eröffnete Orchestre listed] the 24 major and minor keys, [which had been] first set out as a whole in 1711, only two years earlier, in Heinichen’s Neu erfundene und gründliche Anweisung … des General-Basses." Powers quotes Mattheson specifically ...


5

If you take a look at music like the two-part inventions and three-part symphonies by Bach, they make a lot of musical sense, and while they are intended as practice pieces, the prevalent problem (and increase of diffuculty when going from inventions to symphonies) is not one of hitting particular combinations of notes at the same time but rather of ...


4

The full term is "prova all'italiana". There are numerous references to this online; nearly all of them linked with the German (almost) equivalent "sitzprobe". It is easy to understand the meaning of the German phrase, it is literally a "seated-rehearsal", where the singers sing with the orchestra, focusing attention on integrating the two groups. It is ...


4

1). Whenever a composer makes use of counterpoint within the context of a tonal chord progression, or writes a fugue, the composer is more or less going straight back to the compositional technique of the Baroque composers such as J. S. Bach, G. F. Handel, or Telemann. So there are quite a few examples of these compositional techniques in 20th and 21st ...


4

maybe a setting a specific speed was not his intention. He wrote the Gradus to bring music students back to the right path of composition, and he did it through examples of the different modes of counterpoint, i guess one can play it as a crotchet if need be..


4

I'm not sure exactly when or how the squiggly-line shape came about, but I do know there is an alternate notation that looks like a backwards eighth-note rest (called a "semiminima rest", as guidot mentions). You can see this shape used in early Baroque manuscripts, and it originates in mensural notation. Based on a review of several manuscripts I found with ...


4

According to my Italian colleague it means (as Édouard commented): The (=I) soloists (=solisti, irregular plural from solista) from Veneto (i. e. the region, from which Venice is the capital).


4

You must not have heard of the Bösendorfer Imperial 290 piano, which has 9 extra notes lower than "A", for a total of 97 keys. The soundboard is 2.9 meters in length. It is a popular model in large churches and concert halls, but it is very expensive at around €150.000. It has been on the market for more than 100 years. The Bösendorfer company is in Vienna, ...


4

Martin Luther, long before he broke with the Catholic Church, believed that music was a form of prayer, through which the people spoke to God and God spoke back. History states that he didn't actively encourage his congregation to sing along until after his publishing of the 95 Theses and his excommunication, but some sources say he encouraged it at ...


4

I'd go with the Venice archive variants, but then, I probably wouldn't go with Longo's edition - he had some tendency to "correct" things. Kenneth Gilbert's Urtext edition (Volume 5 here) goes entirely with Venice. I don't know if K. 208 is to be found in the Münster (Santini) or Parma archives as well (can't find indexes), but then, we lack anything ...


3

From highhopes.com "In the 14 th century, the line with a crook attached was called crotchet (pronounced like the crochet lace) which meant crook. The French word for crook was also the origin for the crochet needle, giving rise to the name for crochet lace. This crotchet symbol represents a quarter-note rest." However, neither there nor at ...



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