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As noted in the other replies, accidentals are "absolute", with the meaning unfazed by preceding material or key signature. There is one exception: when "weakening" a previous double accidental (key signature or previous in the bar), the resulting single accidental is often printed combined with an immediately preceding natural sign.


Many DAWs utilize this to automatically transpose the MIDI notes incase you change the key after you composed it. For ex, if you composed a song in C, and you change the key signature in your DAW to D, all the notes will be transposed and played appropriately.


I think that my Midi arranger (Solton MS-80) displays the current key or at least uses it for enharmonic interpretation of the current chord. Key signature events most certainly are part of the realtime Midi stream and not just contained in Midi files.


Standard MIDI files (SMF) are designed to be portable between different kinds of DAW (digital audio workstation) and other hardware and software apps and systems, so that a musician can open up the SMF in any DAW and continue working on it and modifying it. Many DAWs can take information from a Standard MIDI file and derive or calculate chord progressions ...


It won't go out the midi port to your keyboard, but the midi sequencer programs that display notation need it if they're going to show the music in standard notation. It's also helpful if you're a composer and want to know what the key is. Without it, a C4 might be the I, or might be the fifth or somewhere else in the key. You could generally guess based ...

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