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16

The triangle symbol Δ originally meant "triad" (meaning major triad) [1]. However, nowadays it is - at least to my knowledge - exclusively used to denote a major seventh chord, even though it is a bit sloppy. I recommend you use Δ7 for denoting a major seventh chord. This will avoid any possible confusion, and it is also the symbol I come across most often. ...


16

One of the clearest examples is a tablet from Ugarit that is generally labelled h.6. If you search around for Hurrian Hymns, h.6, and Hymn to Nikkal you can see some drawings and photographs. Some of the primary scholars that have written and attempted to decode the notation system are Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, Martin West, Richard Crocker, and ...


12

Ordinary quarter rest in a somewhat uncommon but not unheard-of style. French publisher?


11

The lowest notes on these examples must be written on the right of the chord. Not on the left or vertically centered as shown above.


8

The numbers tell you which left hand finger to use (index being 1, pinky being 4 - thumb not included on guitar of course). The Roman numerals tell you which position to play in. This is similar to which fret, as you suggest, but indicates the fret position of the left hand, not the actual note. This is done by putting a Roman numeral for the fret which ...


7

Some of it appears to be a variation of shape notes (5,8,9,10,11,12), others seem based on larger note values that are quite rare in modern music and clef like (6,14). Some (mainly the Xs and triangles) seem based on percussion notation (2,7,8) and some just seem to be decorations (1,3,4,13). As these notes heads come from different places and are used in ...


7

Here are some of example of where alternate note heads are useful. There are probably more that I can't think of, or am unaware of. The "ladder" shape is one form of the double-whole note (aka breve). As you might expect, it has twice the duration of a regular whole note. Notation for percussion instruments oftens use various shapes to indicate different ...


6

It's called scientific pitch notation. Here's an explanation of it: Scientific pitch notation (also known as American Standard Pitch Notation) is one of several methods that name the notes of the standard Western chromatic scale by combining a letter name, accidentals, and a number identifying the pitch's octave. The definition of scientific ...


6

On piano music, with treble and bass clefs, if the dynamics mark is between them, it refers to both parts (hands). If it's for the treble, it's found above the treble, and if for bass alone, it's found under the bass.


5

It has two different meanings in the context of chords . Traditionally, the '+' symbol is used to denote an augmented triad, however it is also used to represent a raised interval which is typically represented by a sharp (#). The first one is most likely an augmented triad with a 9th. The second one just treat the '+' as a sharp where you would play an A7 ...


5

Compared to standard musical notation on a 5 line staff, tabs are fairly easy to learn. They only work for a stringed instrument such as a ukulele or guitar. There is probably some good information on the internet that will give very detailed information on reading tablature. Try this one How To Read Ukulele Tab But I will point out a few things that ...


4

I think you have the order of transition wrong. So in the first image (L.H.), you'd play the high F (assuming bass clef) with your thumb (1), then the D with the index finger (2). You'd then continue holding down the D with your thumb (2), which allows you to reach down to the C (with your pinkie). So you're transitioning from finger 2 to 1 (not from 1 to 2 ...


4

0The 'o' bit designates dim, or diminished. Slightly different from the ø which is half-diminished.(Which was pointed out by someone as wrong - it should be a third diminished!) Wish my keyboard could print it properly - it probably can, but I'm not clever enough to make it work! Half-dim., incidentally is aka m7b5.


3

As there are 4 beats in the bar, it has to be a crotchet (quarter note ) rest. It's probably easier to draw than the regular one, but there is an alternative which is the opposite way round to the quaver rest, again, easier to write.


3

As mentioned in Bob Bradley's comment, it means Electric Guitar. To the left of a staff is where the staff's instrument is specified, and the instrument names are usually abbreviated.


3

Well, if the solo for violin 2 starts there, there is some other solo or a tutti before it, and the D is obviously the last note of that other solo or tutti. If it is a tutti that the solo violin is supposed to share, then the solo violin will fade out of the preceding phrase decently so that the D does not sound out of character or sequence. While it is ...


3

The most standard convention I know of is to change the vowel to "i" for sharping and "e" for flatting. The exception is when flatting "re", in which case you go to "ra".


3

The closest term for what you are referring to is subdivisions as the beat is divided in into smaller parts. The term subdivision is always used when talking about note values less than the beat: For example on the Wikipedia article for Counting Music states: Triple meter, such as 3/4, is often counted 1 2 3, while compound meter, such as 6/8, is ...


2

I don't think there's a name we give to the note naming format of C4... The last number is the octave. By the way, C4 is middle C, not C3. Not every piano manufacturer gets that right. Some start on the wrong octave because their instrument doesn't have the full 88 keys and they start labeling octave 2 as 1. Lowest note on the standard 88 key piano is A0. ...


2

I'll add a bit more explanation to the notation. Usually, in each bar of a sheet, you have a fixed number of voices, which makes it easy to follow the music. In bar 54, there is 1 voice, in bar 55, there are two: One contains f8 g8 a8 b8 a4 b4 (the start of the solo), the other one contains d'2 r4 r2 (the end of the previous motif and just rests afterwards, ...


2

In scores for greater ensembles as well as for instrument groups (say 2 bassoons and contrabassoon notated in the same score) the dynamic is typically written below the voice it belongs to.


2

It's an augmented triad, played by sharpening the fifth by a semitone.


2

This is adapted from Behind Bars by Elaine Gould (a very comprehensive guide on notation): A solid barline connects both staves at the beginning of a system. When the ossia stave begins mid-system at a barline, most editions do not include the initial barline through the cue stave: the dotted barline occupies only the space between the two staves. ...


1

+= sharpened. Sharpened whatever. The number that has + in front of it(or by it) is raised by one semitone so +5 is a sharpened 5th and +9 is a sharpened 9th. The sign means augmented,when used in chord names, and the usual note that's augmented (taken up by a semitone) is the 5th. Thus A = A,C#,E, whereas A+ = A,C#,E#(F). It's common in jazz to alter 5ths ...


1

(1) Exactly, "until instructed otherwise" - the instruction lasts until the end of the piece if there are no more dynamic markings. (2) There is no such thing as 'playing normally' - a piece should have a dynamic marking on the very first note. If it doesn't I would probably assume mezzo-forte but this is speculation only, there is no convention. Pieces ...


1

I believe this is what you're referring to. This is known as "multiple voices", where music consists of two or more melodic lines. In this case, this would be a vocal piece, but if you had to play it on piano, you'd have 4 independent melodic lines to play. Take a look at bar 4. The notes that have the stems facing upwards are one "voice" and the notes with ...


1

Sforzando-piano, 𝆍𝆑𝆎𝆏 is pretty much that. If you put a hairpin under a single note then it's actually an accent, which in fact is also often interpreted as reducing the volume during the note (as opposed to tenuto, where the whole note duration is emphasised). Both of these indicate that the initial note attack is to be emphasised, mind. If you don't ...


1

Technically, the opposite would be: gradually less reinforced I do not know the Italian term for this, but without using any text I think the effect could be accomplished with tenuto, gradually lengthening phrase markings, and a decrescendo.


1

In moveable-do solfège, the usual practice is to indicate sharps with an -i vowel and flats with an -e or -a vowel. For example, a sharp do becomes di, flat sol becomes se, and flat re becomes ra. There are chromatic variants of fixed-do solfège similar to the moveable-do system, but the usual practice in fixed-do is to sing the plain note name without ...


1

Carnatic tradition konnakol, maybe - Konnakol in Wikipedia. Here's an example from Steve Smith and Vital Information: Interwoven Rhythms - Synchronous. John McLaughlin uses the system as well.



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