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12

This means "approximately equal to". I found this with a quick Google search. Here is an example of a webpage confirming the meaning of this symbol. I must confess, I prefer to use "c.", the abbreviation for circa, in metronome markings. Here's an example: I've also seen the "wiggly" equal sign used in metronome marks. It's the top one at this webpage ...


10

It's actually Ped, and just instructs the pianist to use the sustain pedal, in this section.


8

It means to use hold down the damper pedal until the end of the dash. The effect is that every note you play while the pedal is held down is sustained. There are actually a few variations of this notation with another popular form of it shown here. The idea behind the other common form is to show where you press the pedal (the PED) and where you release the ...


7

It's figured bass and while typically associated with analysis and chords the meaning typically differs. As you said typically when thinking in chords or analysis in a V9 the 7th is implied. However, in figured bass only the typical triad is implied unless otherwise noted so just putting the 9 would make the harmony add9 instead of dominant 9. So yes it is ...


7

Roman numerals can be used for aspects of instrumental notation, which are for performance, rather than analytical purposes. For instance, Roman numerals are used to denote: positions in classical guitar music (for instance, see this post); which string a note or passage is to be played on in bowed string music. The wikipedia page about Roman Numerals ...


6

The key thing to remember is that for diatonic scales (major, minor and the modes) each note has a different letter name. In your example F G A A C D E F (ignoring the flats/sharps) has a duplicated letter; thus the 4th note must be a B. One way to lay out a scale is to put the notes in order, e.g. B C D E F G A, and then figure out where the flats/sharps ...


5

They indicate a temporary switch of clefs. The main reason why they are used here is to aid reading, by seperating the left and right hand, giving each its own stave. The little clef in the fourth measure is to draw even more attention that a switch of clefs will be coming in the next line.


4

Normally this would be enough, I think: The '0' indicates that an open string is to be used (in this case the high 'e' string). And from the context you would infer which string to use for the other 'e'. If you want to be more explicit that the other 'e' should be on the b-string you could notate this as well: The number with a circle indicates which ...


4

What you are looking for are key signatures. A key signature determines which flats/sharps to use on a scale. The flats/sharps that appear, do so in a certain order, not random. So, if you see 1 flat, you have to play B♭, if you see 2 flats, you have to play B♭ and E♭ etc. So, if you begin to read a sheet music and you see 2 flats, then ...


4

Every scale will have ONE of each letter name - for a full major or full minor. Starting with C major, with no # or b. The circle of fourths (or fifths, depending which way you go) will give a formula. Go up in fourths, and it will add one extra flat each time. thus - F - has Bb (the fourth note of itself). Up another fourth takes it to Bb - with 2 b, the ...


3

The issue is your assumption that the horn and trumpet are in fact in F and B-flat. Trumpets can be pitched in a variety of keys, and horn historically has played in one harmonic series or another without the use of valves, but by using crooks to pitch the instrument in one key or another. In this case, the horn part is written in C and the trumpet part is ...


3

The only way I've come across is to have two dots (heads) on the stem - one either side of it, on the top space. Looking rather like if you had to play a D and an E simultaneously, when the music would show one each side of a stem because they would otherwise end up as a big blob if they were both printed on the correct side. The fingering would make it a ...


2

'a2' also shows up in percussion parts. even when there is only one written part (snare drum, for ex.) a composer occasionally wants a second player to 'double' what is being played, either for volume or added color/texture. bolero is a good example. toward the end, a 2nd snare drummer is supposed to join in. (this is not always done, but it is in the ...


2

You have guessed correctly. The correct musical term for groups of three notes with a three on top is called a Triplet And such irregular type of rhythmic notation is called a tuplet. Anyway, in the case of triplets, three notes will equal the time of two notes. meaning if there are three eight notes then they will take the time of two eighth notes in ...


1

Sometimes, the notes to be played in a piece are very high in the bass clef, so instead of putting them on leger lines above the clef, the sign changes to treble clef and the dots are easier to read. The opposite also happens - notes too low in the treble clef get written in the bass clef, to save counting lower leger lines.


1

my teacher replied via text. the note with a tail down and a tail up


1

In Guitar the way to tell where to play a note is usually defined by the context... meaning, what were you playing before that note and what is to come after, what are the fingerings e.t.c e.t.c. When more specification is needed the number of the string is written inside a circle above or bellow and a bit to the right of the note like in the pic bellow. ...


1

It might be useful to think of it this way. The second violins, for instance, are a section; they normally play together as a section. Many scores don't specify how many second violins are in the orchestra; they just expect there to be as many as the orchestra has. When the composer needs this second violin section to change its behavior and split into two ...


1

The difference in execution is obvious without the sustain(!) (not, as you wrote, the damper) pedal. With the sustain pedal in place, you'd still retain the mechanical difference in execution. Arguably a returning key and a half-returning damper still make a noise but that's a bit of hair-splitting. What isn't, however, is that the arpeggio is rolled and ...



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