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25

There was a trick for these that I used all the time based on what the rests look like. The whole rest looks like a hole. The words sound the same so it's a good way to equate them. The half rest looks like a hat and since hat and half both start with the letter 'h' they go together. I like this trick a lot because it associates the rests more with ...


17

In elementary school, I was taught to think of the rest like a raft in water. Since a half rest gets two beats, it's like a raft carrying two people - light enough to float on top of the water: The whole rest, on the other hand, gets four beats (in common time, anyway) and so it's like a raft carrying four people - enough weight such that it sinks down ...


14

It's a simile. There are a few different types of similes and this one means "play the last notated measure again". So in this piece you will end up playing the measure before the simile marks 3 times, then play the next notated measure. It's pretty much a very shorthand way of saying "Play what you just played again".


12

A whole-note (semibreve) rest hangs D-O-W-N from the line (four letters, so four beats). A half-note rest points U-P from the line (two letters, so two beats).


9

It's easier to read when you show the beat structure by using ties: Dotted-eighth_then_sixteenth | tied to an eighth_then_eighth | tied to a sixteenth_then_dotted-eighth | eighth_eighth. I'm showing beaming with the _ and new beats (not beamed together) with |. This way, the underlying beat is always immediately clear, and it's much easier to see how the ...


9

This is actually a really nice way to notate guitar. The chord symbol on top tells you what chord to play for the bar, and the tab itself is just indicating the arpeggio pattern. So for example, in the first full bar, you finger a x32010 C major chord, then play the strings indicated as eighth notes (which are indicated by the eighth note beams). Then ...


9

An accidental does apply across the bar line, but would need to be reapplied to any applicable notes after the second note under the tie. Ties don't apply to different notes. (You'd use a slur instead if you wanted the 1st note held until the 2nd note is attacked.) If, say, you sharp a G and tie it across the bar line, then follow the second note under the ...


8

You can say the whole rest hangs below the bar because it's "heavier", so it's value is bigger than the half rest, which sits above the bar, indicating it weighs less, and therefore has half the resting time.


7

The main reason for writing a unison like this has little to do with fingering and everything to do with the music's structure. Unisons in keyboard music quite obviously use the same key, so their point is to show how the voice leading works. In the example above, they show that two lines in contrary motion meet at the tonic. As I've mentioned in my ...


7

That is a trill, not a mordent. It actually starts on the upper auxiliary. The table below is from the Clavier-Büchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, i.e., it is Bach's own. You can read more about it here. This a duplicate of this question.


6

Be explicit about it. Time signatures can change rapidly in modern music, so we need to see all beats accounted for. If I'm reading a piece by Mozart and the end of the bar is empty, I'd feel okay about just assuming the rests, but if I'm playing Stravinsky and I see a measure with the wrong number of beats, I don't know what the hell is going on. There ...


6

Two tied notes on a percussive instrument (including piano) have a single attack. Two slurred notes are two strikes without dampening the first strike before placing the second between. Two tied notes on a string instrument are a single note and thus are played on the same string. In contrast, two slurred notes may well occur on different strings when ...


5

I can't find it in the edition I'm looking at, but probably this is a courtesy accidental to make it easier to remember what note you're playing. Strictly speaking, courtesy accidentals aren't needed for any theory reason, but they can make a difference when playing. Usually they are found at the start of a measure canceling the accidental in the previous ...


5

Just play them with one hand. The reason for writing this is so you can clearly see where both lines go.


5

The beam fragments drawn through stems mean that each of the 8th notes should be divided into two 16th notes. This has nothing to do with the 5/8 time, it's simply a shorthand notation to save writing a lot of note heads, particularly for dense tremolos.


4

Here are 4 versions from the following LilyPond input: \version "2.19.2" << \new RhythmicStaff { 8. 16~8 8~16 8. 8 8 } \new RhythmicStaff { 8. 8. 8. 8. 8 8 } \new RhythmicStaff { \tweak text #tuplet-number::calc-fraction-text \tuplet 2/3 4. { 8 8 8 8 } 8 8 } \new RhythmicStaff { \tweak text #tuplet-number::calc-fraction-text ...


4

My music teacher told me, a 100% criminal hangs, a 50% criminal sits. I have never been able to forget it. (It's snappier in German; ein ganzer Verbrecher hängt, ein halber Verbrecher sitzt.)


4

You're right to be confused, this is notated incorrectly. My best guess is that there's a second voice, so really there should be a quarter and eighth rest before those notes (below the existing quarter notes) and a half rest afterward, and whoever wrote this went through the extra effort to disable them from the display. They could also be grace notes, ...


4

It is short-hand for "play this measure the same way you played the previous measure". Sometimes it is called the "repeat bar" symbol. It is not particular to music notation for bass. It is frequently found, for instance, in fake-book charts and in notation for the "rhythm section" in jazz, meaning percussion, bass, piano and guitar (with guitar, ...


3

No, there's not a conventional rest you can use for that. But you have a couple of options here, depending on what effect is intended. Remember to always go with the simplest solution that accurately represents your intention. Staccato: In this case (and many others), a simple staccato over an eighth note will make this far more legible, especially for ...


3

Similar to t_eld's but a bit less convoluted I think Imagine you just walked into a room, wearing a brimmed "rest hat". If you're only there for a shorter amount of time, you might leave it on (half rest). If you're there for a longer amount of time, you might take it off (whole rest).


3

No, but informally you can just leave blank space. As long as there are no other notes on that stave, it will be perfectly clear what you want. Please note, though, this is informal, and not theoretically correct. It would be fine if you were quickly writing down a score or part for somebody; best not to do it in a music theory exam! If you use a music ...


3

In the case of the example, the readability might be improved by using a doubly-dotted quarter rest instead of the sixteenth, eighth and quarter rests. Technically, all the rests in the measure could be replaced by a triply-dotted half rest, but I can't recall ever seeing that in print.


3

The mnemonic device I remember seeing in elementary school music class was that the half rest is "weaker" so it has to lay on the ground (the staff line), while the whole rest is "stronger" so it can cling to the ceiling. This was illustrated with some cartoon block dudes sleeping, though I can't remember what mechanism was holding Mr. Whole Rest to the ...


3

That's an old style crotchet (quarter note) rest before the minim (half note) chord. It's in the alto voice (as is the chord), which is why it's lower than the centre of the stave - you'll note the measure rest for the descant on the top line.


3

Actually, I think the main reason for this is simply due to proper notation of the voices, rather than having to do with which hand plays the note. To elaborate, both notes rest on the same physical key on the keyboard, however it is meant to convey to the performer that the lower voice and upper voice both cadence on B. I really don't believe this was ...


3

Another reason for notating the same note on both hands is that while both notes would represent the same key on a piano keyboard, it's possible the piece of music might be performed on something other than a solo piano. Some keyboard instruments such as organs and harpsichords are constructed with more than one manual (keyboard), and some musicians stack ...


3

If I'm understanding correctly, you want to tell people that the speed is reducing to to 0.75 of what it was, though in this piece, I feel more of a hemiola (cross rhythm) effect than an actual modulation. The way to notate tempo modulations is to use either the beat or the largest division or subdivision of the beat that is as simple as possible. In this ...


3

You can't really talk about metric modulation without discussing Elliot Carter, a master metric modulator (say that three times fast!) I agree that the passage discussed in the clip is a hemiola, but not for the discussed reasons. Much like a tonal modulation, metric modulations are only considered so if you stay where you're going. For example, if John ...


3

I'd read it like this: Make the chord like the first line says. Then the x's tell you which string to play, starting from the 6th string in the bottom to the 1st in the top. The bars uniting the notes are to give you the tempo of these notes. The numbers on the top of the bars are a mistery to me.



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