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42

NReilingh gave a good general-case answer. I'll give you a specific case just to demonstrate that the concept is useful. First consider a C major chord. C-E-G, right? Then you make it into a minor chord by flattening the third, to get C-E♭-G. So far, so good. Now, consider an A♭ major chord: it's spelled A♭-C-E♭. But what happens when ...


23

Math Alert! Also, I will be very much discussing what is theoretically possible, not necessarily what is convenient for the poor musician. The notation for musical rhythm is more or less equivalent to writing a fractional number in binary (e.g. using a radix point). Each note type represents a different place value. For example: Whole note = 1.02 Half ...


18

B and Cb are different notes. One is a kind of B and the other is a kind of C. Information about harmony is contained both in the note name and any accidental alterations to it — C to any kind of E is a third, and C to any kind of F is a fourth, and those intervals have different meanings, even if they sound "the same". And these pitches are only the same ...


15

It's still a fermata and is typically referred to as triangle fermata. It's shorter than a typical fermata, but holds the same idea of prolonging the note longer than the value written. There's another variant of the fermata referred to as a square fermata that you hold longer than a typical fermata. You can see them all in the Dolmetsch musical symbols ...


11

In classical terminology portamento would probably be the most appropriate naming for the effect you wish to notate, and the notation for that is a slur connecting the notes in the "gliding" range extremities. A curved slur is the most common form of notation: In some instruments that allow for portamento, like the trombone and timpani, a slur may imply ...


7

This is an instruction how to play the trills at a) b) and c) [bars 4 and 7 of the Menuet and bar 4 of the Andante]. Check there are small letters that correspond to each trill.


6

I think the answer is "no, there isn't a standard notation for this." I've never seen one, anyway. But dynamic marks intended for humans (i.e. not for computer playback) have traditionally relied on common-sense interpretation. For example If you have "ff" and the next 50 or 100 bars of music contain several short crescendo hairpins with gaps in between ...


6

It's a really round about way of notating a G7sus4. The + is telling you to raise the note and the 3 is referring to the third of the chord so it's telling you to raise the 3rd. Since a raised major 3rd is just a 4th you'll typically see this chord as just G7sus4 which tells you to play a G7 with a 4th instead of a 3rd. If you even search the chord symbol ...


5

H is for Hauptstimme, a German term denoting the primary melodic line in a contrapuntal work. N for Nebenstimme denotes the secondary line. The notation was introduced by the composers Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern. It may be an analytical note as much as a performance instruction.


5

It is just a "shorter" fermata. Not official notation (actually, what is official) but modern composers used different shapes of fermatas to indicate different lengths. Most notably Poulenc. Still, it remains subjective. Fermatas are never a precise alteration.


5

If that is what you want to do, you wouldn't use standard notation at all. It's ok to use other forms of representing music like graphic notation or even make your own when it doesn't fit in the system. You could theoretically represent it in standard notation, but I would be very hard to comprehend and write. The way to represent it on standard notation ...


5

The point of roman numeral analysis is to represent what certain chords "do" in the key, or how they functional (and it's often called "functional analysis'). If the music wasn't written to be functional (like a soundscape, early polyphony, or some modern music), it's not very helpful to analyze with functionality in mind. Some kinds of music are better ...


4

A pragmatic answer: if there is a way to notate that repeats are to be played on D.C. or D.S., it is not well known. I'm not saying there is no such standard, only that it is not widespread. The best you can do is to write it out: "D.S. with repeats", or "D.S con repetizione" if you prefer italian.


4

Notation as we know it has been around for many centuries, and although it was quite vague initially, it's sorted. Using ties, dotted notes and tuplets, as you say, means that any note duration in any time signature can be written. O.k. as Bob says, some could end up ugly and difficult to read, but if something had been deemed unwriteable, a new ...


4

Is it just a matter of chance that we note music as we do? One of the ideas put forward by A generative theory of tonal music is that "the events of a piece are related to a regular alternation of strong and weak beats at a number of hierarchical levels" - I believe the suggestion is that this is something fundamental to the human experience of music, ...


4

The one says "2da volta" means "second repeat". You play the given bars in the second repeat while playing the main variant (of the top staff, presumably) otherwise. The "Ossia" means "Other": optionally, you can play the small variant instead of the main variant below it.


3

I have never seen something like this before and couldn't find anything either, so my guess would be that it's a crash cymbal that lasts a whole note (semibreve). I'm guessing it's shaped like that to resemble the whole note.


2

@Dom has showed you how to work out a solution in general. I want to add a bit of detail to his answer that seems to have gotten lost. Namely: musical note durations don't occur in a vacuum. The human ear tends to naturally group them into a hierarchy of equally-spaced beats. And while the notation may be general enough to allow such arbitrary fractions, ...


2

That is the french down bow sign, which is the same thing as normal down bow.


2

"bis" is just Latin for "twice", it's a pretty common expression in romance language countries, not so much in other ones, I guess. I had never seen it in tablatures before, but I suppose the meaning should be to repeat the previous segment.


2

Another option is to use a transposed G or F clef:


2

You can write the Octave Sign that can indicate octave up or down for the really high and low notes. So for instance you can if you want to notate a note an octave up from. So instead of this... This


2

Music is fundamentally made up of intervals, which are ratios of pitches (sound frequencies). The "simpler" the ratio, as in a fraction with smaller numbers, the more consonant the interval. For example: the perfect octave is 2:1, the perfect fifth is 3:2, major third is 5:4, the diminished fourth is 32:25. To produce music, we chain the intervals together, ...


1

You're asking quite an advanced question to which there can be many different answers, all true; the idea is the harmonic context. As the man said, in a scale there is A B C♯ D E F♯ G♯ A. Now clearly that last G♯ couldn't be A♭, because the scale demands that the note before the top A, be a G. But if it's a normal G, the scale doesn't come out right. So we ...


1

RIGHT HAND PLAYS A# AND C#, rapidly going from one to the other, sounding like a tremolo effect, lasting the whole bar. It's called tremulando.The left hand alternates between E and Fx (F##). Giving a tremulous low diminished seventh chord.


1

Somebody else may know better, but as far as I know there's yet no simple to use piece of software that allows what you need. Polyphonic pitch recogniton software exists with pretty sophiscated capabilities, but they cannot guess what part of the signal is of interest to you or simply distinguish a melody from accompaniment. In simple terms, the sw is going ...


1

It's what I use. In key A, though, G will be bVII rather than #VI as you suggest, as G# is the normal VII in A, so flattening G# makes the Roman numeral bVII.


1

It's a modern version of a fermata. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermata. Some composers use these to represent differing lengths of pauses.


1

I'm just going to keep it really simple: The measure in question is to be played 'free' or 'fill'. You can do whatever feels right musically to you, then continue on as you were playing before.


1

The notes that seem to have 2 different names are actually 2 different notes. If you are only looking for note names then you should be fine - follow the advise of these commentators and you will automatically get the correct sharps or flats for your key signature. But if you are coding music to be played in precise harmony (for example on Supercollider) ...



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