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53

NReilingh gave a good general-case answer. I'll give you a specific case just to demonstrate that the concept is useful. First consider a C major chord. C-E-G, right? Then you make it into a minor chord by flattening the third, to get C-E♭-G. So far, so good. Now, consider an A♭ major chord: it's spelled A♭-C-E♭. But what happens when ...


22

B and Cb are different notes. One is a kind of B and the other is a kind of C. Information about harmony is contained both in the note name and any accidental alterations to it — C to any kind of E is a third, and C to any kind of F is a fourth, and those intervals have different meanings, even if they sound "the same". And these pitches are only the same ...


15

It's still a fermata and is typically referred to as triangle fermata. It's shorter than a typical fermata, but holds the same idea of prolonging the note longer than the value written. There's another variant of the fermata referred to as a square fermata that you hold longer than a typical fermata. You can see them all in the Dolmetsch musical symbols ...


13

May I suggest that it is not an 'x' per se, but actually two lines clarifying the voice leading for the top voices. Such lines are found in the first two bars as well.


11

In classical terminology portamento would probably be the most appropriate naming for the effect you wish to notate, and the notation for that is a slur connecting the notes in the "gliding" range extremities. A curved slur is the most common form of notation: In some instruments that allow for portamento, like the trombone and timpani, a slur may imply ...


7

This is an instruction how to play the trills at a) b) and c) [bars 4 and 7 of the Menuet and bar 4 of the Andante]. Check there are small letters that correspond to each trill.


6

I think the answer is "no, there isn't a standard notation for this." I've never seen one, anyway. But dynamic marks intended for humans (i.e. not for computer playback) have traditionally relied on common-sense interpretation. For example If you have "ff" and the next 50 or 100 bars of music contain several short crescendo hairpins with gaps in between ...


5

The point of roman numeral analysis is to represent what certain chords "do" in the key, or how they functional (and it's often called "functional analysis'). If the music wasn't written to be functional (like a soundscape, early polyphony, or some modern music), it's not very helpful to analyze with functionality in mind. Some kinds of music are better ...


5

It is just a "shorter" fermata. Not official notation (actually, what is official) but modern composers used different shapes of fermatas to indicate different lengths. Most notably Poulenc. Still, it remains subjective. Fermatas are never a precise alteration.


5

If that is what you want to do, you wouldn't use standard notation at all. It's ok to use other forms of representing music like graphic notation or even make your own when it doesn't fit in the system. You could theoretically represent it in standard notation, but I would be very hard to comprehend and write. The way to represent it on standard notation ...


4

Is it just a matter of chance that we note music as we do? One of the ideas put forward by A generative theory of tonal music is that "the events of a piece are related to a regular alternation of strong and weak beats at a number of hierarchical levels" - I believe the suggestion is that this is something fundamental to the human experience of music, ...


4

A pragmatic answer: if there is a way to notate that repeats are to be played on D.C. or D.S., it is not well known. I'm not saying there is no such standard, only that it is not widespread. The best you can do is to write it out: "D.S. with repeats", or "D.S con repetizione" if you prefer italian.


4

The one says "2da volta" means "second repeat". You play the given bars in the second repeat while playing the main variant (of the top staff, presumably) otherwise. The "Ossia" means "Other": optionally, you can play the small variant instead of the main variant below it.


3

If you listen to the recording, the melody voice in bars 88-89 really goes f f f g g g ees c' | g ...; this is probably a way how the author wanted to present this fact, using voice/staff switching lines. It would have been actually better to use the proper notation of the leading voice:


3

Music is fundamentally made up of intervals, which are ratios of pitches (sound frequencies). The "simpler" the ratio, as in a fraction with smaller numbers, the more consonant the interval. For example: the perfect octave is 2:1, the perfect fifth is 3:2, major third is 5:4, the diminished fourth is 32:25. To produce music, we chain the intervals together, ...


3

I have never seen something like this before and couldn't find anything either, so my guess would be that it's a crash cymbal that lasts a whole note (semibreve). I'm guessing it's shaped like that to resemble the whole note.


2

Most melodies - in any style - can be transcribed using: 1) pitches, 2) rhythms, 3) motives, 4) phrases, 5) overall form. Unfortunately, in the videos you cited, the musician does not play the rhythms consistently each time the example is played. Therefore, I based my transcription on the overall performance of the second video (the one where the keyboard ...


2

@Dom has showed you how to work out a solution in general. I want to add a bit of detail to his answer that seems to have gotten lost. Namely: musical note durations don't occur in a vacuum. The human ear tends to naturally group them into a hierarchy of equally-spaced beats. And while the notation may be general enough to allow such arbitrary fractions, ...


2

"bis" is just Latin for "twice", it's a pretty common expression in romance language countries, not so much in other ones, I guess. I had never seen it in tablatures before, but I suppose the meaning should be to repeat the previous segment.


2

Another option is to use a transposed G or F clef:


2

You can write the Octave Sign that can indicate octave up or down for the really high and low notes. So for instance you can if you want to notate a note an octave up from. So instead of this... This


2

There is a difference between "conventional musical terms that were originally Italian" and "the Italian language". A common example is "con sordino" with a mute or "sordini" (plural) - the "correct" Italian is sordina/sordine, but most musicians either don't know or don't care whether their mutes are grammatically masculine or feminine. Another is "D.S. ...


1

The preferred method depends on the instrument in question. The violin and the clarinet, for examples, are accustomed to playing a couple octaves' worth of ledger lines above the trebleclef. Cello parts may have a stack of ledger lines, or they may jump from bass to clef, or get annotated "8va" . I once had to explain to a music major (underclass) that, ...


1

You're asking quite an advanced question to which there can be many different answers, all true; the idea is the harmonic context. As the man said, in a scale there is A B C♯ D E F♯ G♯ A. Now clearly that last G♯ couldn't be A♭, because the scale demands that the note before the top A, be a G. But if it's a normal G, the scale doesn't come out right. So we ...


1

RIGHT HAND PLAYS A# AND C#, rapidly going from one to the other, sounding like a tremolo effect, lasting the whole bar. It's called tremulando.The left hand alternates between E and Fx (F##). Giving a tremulous low diminished seventh chord.


1

Somebody else may know better, but as far as I know there's yet no simple to use piece of software that allows what you need. Polyphonic pitch recogniton software exists with pretty sophiscated capabilities, but they cannot guess what part of the signal is of interest to you or simply distinguish a melody from accompaniment. In simple terms, the sw is going ...


1

It's what I use. In key A, though, G will be bVII rather than #VI as you suggest, as G# is the normal VII in A, so flattening G# makes the Roman numeral bVII.


1

It's a modern version of a fermata. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermata. Some composers use these to represent differing lengths of pauses.


1

The notes that seem to have 2 different names are actually 2 different notes. If you are only looking for note names then you should be fine - follow the advise of these commentators and you will automatically get the correct sharps or flats for your key signature. But if you are coding music to be played in precise harmony (for example on Supercollider) ...


1

In writing for the violin family, a small circle also means harmonic, which is produced by lightly touching the string enough to stop it vibrating but not enough to play the note. Sometimes the string is stopped lower down as well, in order to play a different range of harmonics.



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