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10

Without a picture, we can just guess, and my guess is that it is referring to a triplet. Something like this for instance: Τhe eighth triplets (second group,second bar) are 3 eighth notes that are being played in one beat; the quarter triplets (first group,second bar) are 3 quarter notes that are being played on two beats etc.


8

They indicate a temporary switch of clefs. The main reason why they are used here is to aid reading, by seperating the left and right hand, giving each its own stave. The little clef in the fourth measure is to draw even more attention that a switch of clefs will be coming in the next line.


7

There are two unrelated things going on here, and I'm not sure which you're asking about. The small bit of staff with the tiny notes on it is called an ossia. It goes with the staff below it, and gives you an alternative way to play that passage. In this case, the difference looks to be the location of the accented notes (marked with the > symbol), although ...


6

Sometimes, the notes to be played in a piece are very high in the bass clef, so instead of putting them on leger lines above the clef, the sign changes to treble clef and the dots are easier to read. The opposite also happens - notes too low in the treble clef get written in the bass clef, to save counting lower leger lines.


6

It must be a shorthand way of writing what's in the previous bar: instead of writing all three triplets out, he's written one, with the '3' over it, saying it gets played thrice. As each chord needs to be staccato, he's put three dots over it, to signify each staccato.


5

This will be a G7b9 chord. Where the 9th is flattened from A to Ab. So, the whole chord has pitches G B D F Ab Although the "-" sign is sometimes used to denote a minor chord (a chord with a minor 3rd), it can also be used to denote a minor, flattened or diminished interval in a chord. For example -5 for b5, or in this case -9 for b9.


5

Accidentals in a key signature always apply to any octave you play in. The human ear hears the same note in neighbouring octaves as almost identical (in fact, many people have a hard time distinguishing them at all). People sing along to a tune in a higher or lower octave with no qualms, and often without noticing. Some instruments, e.g. kettle drums, emit ...


4

It's just to let you know the when building the chord you don't use the 5th that is natural to the key, but a lowered one instead. Remember every figured bass marking assumes you are building your harmony inside the key you are in and in this case you are not. So the figured base is referring to Eb instead of E as that is what a standard 5 would represent. ...


3

I think that in this (and most other) contexts the broad definition of the tritone makes sense, which says that a tritone is an interval spanned by six semi-tones. So with this definition both augmented fourth and diminished fifth qualify as a tritone. Whether that note in the blues scale is written as a #4 or a b5 usually depends on the direction of the ...


3

To be 100% exact to the name 'tritone', it would be #4. Because, if we ascend 3 tones from the root, we have #4, and not b5. The three tones would be C-D, D-E, E-F#. Although, from what I have understood, it depends on the progression. Usually, the #4/b5 tritone would descend a semitone. For instance, a common progression would be Gb7-F (maj7 or 7). Since ...


3

As Laurence Payne's comment says, you've encountered one form of musical shorthand. There are a few layers of shorthand here so I'll break it down for you. Stripping the first of the first measure of the second line of any shorthand markings, we have just a dotted eighth note. Now we'll look at that slashy mark across the stem. It just means to subdivide ...


3

Regarding the doubled-up G: The composer has written the musical effect he requires. He hasn't been pedantic over exactly how the player will achieve it. The L.H. will of course need to release the G early so that the R.H. can play it as part of the melody. I don't think you'll find it a great practical difficulty.


2

Most scales are assumed to be octave-repeating, due to the way that we hear a similarity between notes that are an octave apart (the reason for this being that with many instruments, any note contains harmonic partials at the frequencies of all the overtones of a note an octave below). This includes the diatonic scale, which is the scale that standard ...


2

Rit is probably ritenuto, an immediate slowing down, as opposed to rubato, and tenuto means hang on for full note value - or even a touch longer: which makes sense as one will make the other happen.So, the whole bar should come at a slightly slower pace than the preceding bars. On the assumption it's written in C at that point - I'm guessing - you can play ...


1

The whole POINT of a tritone is its ambiguity! But, in a system of harmonic analysis built on the "pile of thirds" model, I can see why a modified 5th is preferred to a modified 4th. I find insistence that the indisputably aurally flattened b10 must be labelled #9 rather harder to take!


1

Matt L.'s answer is an excellent one. If you are asking "what should I call it, and when should I call it that?" here's my experience. In heptatonic (7 note scales) each number gets used once, you always call it a #4 if its the fourth note in the scale, e.g. in Lydian, or for a minor example, in the 4th mode of harmonic minor (essentially Dorian with a ...


1

It refers to an interval of a fifth. The b is for you to know that the note should be flat by the key signature. Don't think these symbols as chord symbols. Think of them as intervals regardless of quality (i.e. major, minor, perfect etc.) from the bass note. If an accidental is required it will be given as in your case. The same goes for every other ...


1

In conjunction with the slur and the rit., it means bring out the right hand figure slightly. The slur already specifies that the figure is to be played legato and as a group (which means that the last crochet should probably be slightly detached from whatever follows it, although it will be held reasonably long anyway due to the rit.). From an interpretive ...


1

It is usually when both hands are playing low that the bass clef gets inserted where the treble clef usually is. The inverse can also happen when both hands are playing high.


1

Although perhaps not the easiest version, but one which will give you the most theoretical background, is the Circle of Fifths; this is especially useful for determining the number of flats or sharps in a scale, or given a number of sharps or flats, determining in which key you are playing. You start at C, which in major does not have any sharps or flats. ...


1

I think the extra bass clef is a reminder. The last note before the crotchet (quarter note) rest is D (above middle C). It is the last note in a rising chromatic scale, the next note of which might conceivably be D# or E (above middle C). Therefore, the musician might be expecting the next note to be in the vicinity of E above middle C, not over an octave ...


1

A common misconception is that accidentals affect future notes in the same measure across octaves. This is simply not true. Accidentals only affect the note in the octave in which they occur. So, if A4 has a sharp accidental and there is an A3 later in the same measure, the sharp doesn't carry over. This happens often in jazz music, as well as in ...


1

Common standard string tablature can be called 'Fret tablature' If you are going to be writing tablature for yourself, you might as well go an ergonomic step further, and use 'Fingering tablature' instead. It has two advantages - it is faster to interpret, and it informs you where your hand should be placed on the neck. Consider a piece of fret tablature ...



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