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15

I believe the symbol is an Italian notation, referred to as 'Mordente' - although not always the mordent as we know it! It was commonly used 1710-1760, which fits the time period you specified. How to play it seems to vary according to who wrote it, but one of the most 'defined' examples was from Germiniani's 1748/51 ornament tables, where it was specified ...


13

No, it is still a B♭. The flat is just reminding you that the B is flat. This is typically done if the previous measure uses a B that was different then the one in the key signature or if there was a different quality of B used in the measure it is used to cancel out the other quality. In the key D minor, if you were ascending from A to D, a typical melody ...


12

Yes, that's a "play both notes". See http://musescore.org/node/14449 for a note on the standard from the US Music Publisher's Association.


11

They refer to divisions (manuals) of the organ: Grt. for Great (French 'Grand Choeur', German 'Hauptwerk') and Sw. for Swell (French 'Grand Orgue', German 'Schwellwerk'). For English, American and German organs, in a two-manual configuration, the lower manual is the Great, and the top manual is the Swell. French organs usually have the Swell at the bottom. ...


9

A bar's duration can be represented using the whole note No, not always! This is the incorrect assumption you're making. A bar's 'duration' depends on the time signature. So, in a standard 4/4 bar, the bar is 4 quarter notes long. (4 * 1/4...see where this is going?) Alternatively, in a 3/2 bar, the bar is 3 half notes long, or 3 * 1/2! So, whilst a ...


7

To find the length in seconds of each beat for any given metronome marking in beats-per-minute (bpm), you would divide 60 (the number of seconds in a minute) by the bpm marking. For instance, if a piece has a metronome marking of crotchet (quarter-note) = 120, each crotchet beat is 0.5 seconds long (60/120). You can follow this simple rule to find the ...


6

Just to add to @MattL's answer... Great and Swell are usually assigned to different manuals. (Although they can be linked by couplers.) The Great manual will usually be assigned to principal stops, or as this page describes it, the Great manual usually: contains the meat and potatoes of the organ: the principal chorus. The Swell manual will be linked ...


6

A whole note takes up a full measure in 16/16, 8/8, 4/4, and 2/2 time only. A whole note has the value of 4 quarter notes or 2 half notes. Since how common 4/4 time is (it is even also referred to as common time) it makes sense that the notes name line up with the use in 4/4. In 3/2 the whole measure is represented by a dotted whole note (i.e. a whole note ...


6

My answer is ultimately similar to Bob Broadley's, but has one difference that can make for much more readable scores in slightly more complex situations. This is the standard notation for broken held chords like the one you describe, as recommended by Kurt Stone and Gardner Read: The difference here is that you don't rewrite any of the held notes until ...


5

My sense (after writing parsers for ABC, MusicXML, Cappella, Noteworthy, and about 6 other formats; and output to Lilypond, etc.) is the limitations of ABC, the format, cannot be completely separated from the limitations of ABC parsers. As both Kevin and Chris noted above, the ABC format has the capacity to encode much of the complexity of MusicXML and ...


5

There is an Ornament Playback Plugin for Sibelius. You can select options for inverted and chromatic ornaments. Information about this plugin, including how to find it, can be found at this webpage. UPDATE: the picture below shows where the Ornament Playback Plugin can be found in the Play tab of the ribbon (this is in the latest version, Sibelius 7): ...


4

The accidental ♭ does not combine with the ♭ in the key signature to produce a double-flat. Rather, the accidental is redundant. The easiest interpretation rule is that any accidental overrides whatever is in the key signature. The term for such usage is courtesy accidental: Although a barline is nowadays understood to cancel the effect of an ...


4

No it indicates B flat. Usually the flat is cancelling a natural (or sharp) earlier in the measure. Even if it's not cancelling, it has only been included by the editor to improve the readability of the passage.


4

There are a number of features planned for abc notation - major updates for v2.2 and v2.3, as well as a number of minor proposals. abc v2.2 is mainly concerned with "sort[ing] out ambiguities and incompatibilities in multi-voice music", relating to the 'control voice'. As far as I can see, both Lilypond and MusicXML have fully-fledged multiple voice ...


4

In newer versions of LilyPond \override MultiMeasureRestNumber #'stencil = ##f can be expressed as \override MultiMeasureRestNumber.stencil = ##f or even shorter as \omit MultiMeasureRestNumber All of that does exactly the same. It's just syntactic sugar.


3

Sometimes it will be obvious to a performer that you need to sustain notes that together outline one particular harmony (a single triad, for instance). If you want to make this explicit, though, you could use notation such as the following: I'm not sure that this is used that much in piano music, probably because the pedal will produce the required effect ...


2

There is no standard "Moderate 4". For one thing "Moderate" is English while the normal language would be Italian, "Moderato". And incidentally more than half of the answers are for "Moderato", missing the fine difference. So that is a good indication that this is a non-standard thing to write over a score. Then "Moderate 4" is a crutch since "4" is not ...


2

Even though this question has already long been answered, I thought I would show a picture of the note durations in case it helps someone. The time of a single quarter note can be filled many ways: |___________| : One quarter note |_____|_____| : Two eighth notes |___|___|___| : Three triplets |__|__|__|__| : Four sixteenth notes So the rhythm ...


2

The 'grt', sometimes designated 'I', is the manual closest to the player on a two manual organ. It's called the great manual. The other is called the swell, or 'II'. Hence 'sw'. Different sounds can be made using the stops for each manual, and sometimes they are coupled, so playing one manual operates both, giving more sound options.


1

My sense is that I can never think of an example of a piece published in the main era of classical music hand engraving (1800-1960) that has a tie which continues into the first ending where the engraver did not also put the ending of the tie in the second ending (similarly for other elements that extend into the first ending such as crescendi; I would also ...


1

It is probably best that you write what you want above the first measure then write (sim.) if it continues in the other measures as shown below. If there isn't a simple way to notate something you can use a few words to describe it.


1

Whether music "swings" or not is almost entirely independent of the duration of the eighth-notes. That said, it's very rare that music that truly swings treats a pair of eighth notes as a quarter-eighth triplet; more often, that's a recipe for sounding like Lawrence Welk, or a mediocre high school jazz band. There certainly are exceptions - and performances ...


1

ABC Notation is a wonderful notation language that a number of people prefer to Lilypond. Many of the limitations of ABC Notation are not in the notation but in the implementation of tools. Before ABC Notation 2.1 the main limitation was in the writing of multiple voice music, but this has been addressed in ABC Notation 2.1 and will be finalized in ABC ...



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