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6

At one point in time (mainly the Baroque period,) a common way to notate a keyboard part was to simply write the bass part and then notate with numbers what intervals above the bass note were needed to complete the chord. This is called figured bass. So, for instance, if you wanted to indicated a root position 7th chord, you would write 3,5,7 below the ...


4

It's figured bass. The numbers correspond to the interval between the bass note and the notes above the bass. In root position you have the intervals 3, 5, and 7 above the bass. 5 and 3 are just standard triad intervals so the it is simplified to V7 In first inversion you have the intervals 3, 5, and 6 above the bass. We have just a 6 to denote a triad in ...


5

Typically dotted stave lines suggest a continuation of the stave without having the stave actually be present. Quite often you'd just see the top and bottom lines of the stave extended to where the stave re-appears in full. This technique is predominately used for cut-away scores to help line things up. In this context of what you presented however, there ...


4

Modulation When music moves from one key to another, it 'modulates'. Modulation is that process. Articulation The 'style' a note is played in. I'm finding this harder to define, but think short, sharp notes vs. long, smooth ones. Articulation is the style a note is played in. Accidentals Sharps, flats and naturals which pop up through the music, and are ...


4

The key to this section is the term "Senza tempo", which means "not in tempo", or in other words that this is completely free decoration. The rising arpeggio in the left hand can be taken leisurely, and the small notes can start when you feel like, and at the speed you feel like (usually pretty fast though). Really they are a variant form of trill, which ...


7

This is called a turn. The 'basic' version would be written without the accidentals, and the player would play the first note, then quickly play one tone (note) above, the main note again, a tone below, the main note, and the resolve one the final note. The accidentals clarify exactly which notes to "twiddle" to. The turn can be either directly over a ...


0

It's a turn where the note above is flat and the note below is natural. It's a trill (though it is technically two trill marks) It's a grace note. It's most likely either optional notes or notes that belong to another part. Either way with the pedal marks above them they are probably extra ornamentation after playing the dotted whole note pattern with the ...


6

The 'actual notes' marking appears in two places in the score. The first, as you've flagged, is the first entrance of the trumpet part. The same marking then appears at a section marked specifically for clarinet (where the remainder of the part is clarinet or flute). As this marking consistently appears at the first entrances of the only parts marked ...


4

It's the kind of instruction I would expect in "scordatura" situations where an instrument is retuned or modified or stuffed beyond pitch accuracy. In that case, "actual notes" would mean that the given notes are the sounding notes rather than what one should be fingering on the instrument if it were unmodified. Another, probably less likely, option would ...


1

This is a badly notated 'open string', this should be a zero instead of a circle because it makes it hard to differentiate between open strings and open harmonics.


1

On guitar, there are often several places to play the same note. For example, the top E could be fretted on the 3rd string, 9th fret, 2nd string, 5th fret or open top string.The circle, as stated in the previous answer, indicates that the composer wants that E played on an open top string.The circle by the bottom E says the same thing, although I can't think ...


13

They indicate open-string notes (E,A,D,G,B,E); note that they are in the same position of the numbers that indicate which fingers to use to fret the notes.


2

If it's on sheet music, it probably won't be describing the chord shown. More likely it will be telling you what chord can be played along with that bar/part bar of the music. There may be another part, for example, with just a G note for the bar, and the chord shown may be C. There will generally be chords shown, often for a chordal instrument like guitar ...


3

If the notes are A-E-A, the chord is indeed ambiguous. It could be an A or Am chord. However, the context can often tell you what the chord is supposed to be, even if the third (C# in case of A chord, C in case of Am chord) is missing. For instance, this chord will most likely be an Am chord if it appears in a C or Am key. If the sheet music describes ...


5

The given chord will be the underlying harmony. That does not mean that the notes at that point of time played by the piano will feature every note in A minor, nor does it mean that nothing but notes fitting an A minor chord will be present. It just means that if another accompanying instrument were to play an A minor chord, this would fit with the music. ...


9

You can use ordinario or normale: ordinario or normale: to bow in the ordinary or normal fashion, canceling a previous instruction to play s.p. or s.t. abbreviations: ord. ; norm.; N. - source


1

The only limit to how many p or f is the technical proficiency of the musicians. It must be made clear that dynamics in themselves do not mean anything. They are references to each other. A piano is a piano only in reference to dynamics in their very piece. Better ensembles and musicians will be able to actually make differences between a ff and a fff, or ...


0

I understand your question. I think this is indeed a mistake in the notation, if my music theory isn't too rusty. The first two beats of the second measure are indeed clearly a tonic (I 6over4), considering that the notes are dbdg. And only on the third beat it becomes the dominant (be it dominant seven). The V should indeed be on the third beat under the ...


0

It is because the 7 concerns also the dominant. You have two different chords for the same function.


2

In figured bass notation thirds and fifths are implicit in root position chords. Therefore, if you just see a "7", this means R, 3, 5 and 7.


1

Needs to be noted that it's all relative. Each instrument will have its own dynamic spectrum, so a piccolo won't have the same 'p' or 'f' as say, a trumpet. Also the auditorium must play a part in this. A small hall will surely give 'f' a different no. of decibels from a large one. And there seems to be no actual figures for 'p', 'f' etc. Once some ...


1

I know it as usual that fff means as loud as possible and ppp is as quiet as possible Those two are the maximum in every direction i know as usual. For the most cases this should be enough. For listeners 8 volumelevels (ppp, pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, fff) is hard to differentiate, but for the players it can also be hard to play it the same every time. ...


3

I would actually expect that having more levels simply means that you're expected to recognize the relative differences between different segments of the piece being played, thus allowing you to play the song more closely to how the original composer intended. Example: if you had pp, mp, ff and fffff you would probably play those parts somewhat differently ...


4

Giovanni Gabrielli started it all with just two: piano and forte. Before long, there were also pp (pianissimo, "softest") and ff (fortissimo, "loudest"). Beethoven used fff if I recall correctly, but few composers used more than 2 of each. I know that Tchaikovsky's sixth symphony has ffffff and ppppppp. (Most conductors substitute a bass clarinet for ...


2

There are no consistent technical specifications attached to the various numbers of letters. Thus, any number of letters can theoretically be used by the composer. However, it is important to remember that any more than three or possibly four starts to get extremely difficult to read at all quickly. Also, they are not set to a concrete Db level, but the ...


7

I've seen ppp, pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, fff used commonly giving you 8 levels. ffff and pppp seem pretty rare. There's also no standard for EXACTLY how loud each of these are. Eh, it's the arts. Whattayagonnado ?


2

There is no limit, but for any normal performance pp to ff would be all you need. A p itself means quiet and an f itself means loud. When you add another p or f to each it technically adds "very" in front of each. Examples: pp - very soft ff - very loud ppp - very, very soft fff - very, very loud pppp - very, very, very soft ffff - very, very, very loud ...


2

Specific to performance, swing is a type of timing which some define as dividing each beat in to three pieces and then playing the first and third part of that division. However many would fault this definition, claiming that swing is a "feel" that is not precisely divided into three, or four, or two, but some vaguely specific timing where the beat is ...


0

I have several recordings of the Noels and don't remember anything special here. In the second bar (the piece starts with your given bars, doesn't it?) it is not striking to be the standard symbol for an unspecified ornamentation. I observe however, that both systems being in the treble clef, on a one-manual instrument the right hand has to give way to the ...


0

The style of a piece is entirely subjective, and the composer or editor can use any term they wish! There are, however, a set of common tempos that are also related to rhythm and style (that page lists some that are primarily related to "mood and character" rather than speed). For example, agitato is used to denote not only a hurried pace but actually ...


8

I found the below footnote in a transcription on IMSLP: It translates: I think that one could play the + sign, as a 'pinched' lower mordent. Where this is first notated, it applies to the sign above a single note in the right hand, however, there are further places where the same notation is used on chords, and below the notes, without further ...


3

I like to approach this kind of question from the perspective of a composer: considering I want to write for an instrument that does not traditionally use notation, but will be played presumably by someone who is familiar with it, how best can I communicate what I am looking for to this person? I definitely agree with Kevin that adapting existing notational ...


4

Check this out. Thumbing is the act of playing with one or both thumbs on the keyboard below the keyboard on which the rest of fingers are playing. This technique was developed in the late 19th century, and fell out of use after 1930. While at first an organist not used to this technique will only be able to use it to play isolated sustained ...


1

This page is useful http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_musical_symbols#Articulation_marks It says: Left-hand pizzicato or Stopped note A note on a stringed instrument where the string is plucked with the left hand (the hand that usually stops the strings) rather than bowed. On the horn, this accent indicates a "stopped note" (a note played ...


2

Since it's rhythm I would suggest adapting drum tab to your purpose. Something like: or: HH|x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-|| S|----o-------o---|| B|o-------o-------|| 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + Whatever you're most comfortable with. Just replace the "HH" and other voices with an abbreviation for whatever effect you want to notate.



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