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3

If you listen to the recording, the melody voice in bars 88-89 really goes f f f g g g ees c' | g ...; this is probably a way how the author wanted to present this fact, using voice/staff switching lines. It would have been actually better to use the proper notation of the leading voice:


13

May I suggest that it is not an 'x' per se, but actually two lines clarifying the voice leading for the top voices. Such lines are found in the first two bars as well.


2

There is a difference between "conventional musical terms that were originally Italian" and "the Italian language". A common example is "con sordino" with a mute or "sordini" (plural) - the "correct" Italian is sordina/sordine, but most musicians either don't know or don't care whether their mutes are grammatically masculine or feminine. Another is "D.S. ...


2

Most melodies - in any style - can be transcribed using: 1) pitches, 2) rhythms, 3) motives, 4) phrases, 5) overall form. Unfortunately, in the videos you cited, the musician does not play the rhythms consistently each time the example is played. Therefore, I based my transcription on the overall performance of the second video (the one where the keyboard ...


0

Sometimes when you have F# in the key signature, it's better to use E♯ so you don't have to go through the trouble of making F natural and then making it sharp after again. Same with C♭.


0

One way of thinking about it is to avoid the equal temperament trap and assuming things like G#=A♭. This is not the case. The theory side of it is based on harmonic context in which you can not have 2 of the "same" note (e.g. D♭ and D#) in one scale. For instance, the A♭m (aeolian) scale goes as such: A♭, B♭, C♭, D♭, E♭, F♭, G♭, A♭. You cannot have B♭ and B ...


1

The preferred method depends on the instrument in question. The violin and the clarinet, for examples, are accustomed to playing a couple octaves' worth of ledger lines above the trebleclef. Cello parts may have a stack of ledger lines, or they may jump from bass to clef, or get annotated "8va" . I once had to explain to a music major (underclass) that, ...


3

Music is fundamentally made up of intervals, which are ratios of pitches (sound frequencies). The "simpler" the ratio, as in a fraction with smaller numbers, the more consonant the interval. For example: the perfect octave is 2:1, the perfect fifth is 3:2, major third is 5:4, the diminished fourth is 32:25. To produce music, we chain the intervals together, ...


0

Another way is to use ledger lines. Ledger lines and different clefs (by octave or other transposition) are all common. One (supposedly) uses whatever is easiest to read. A related complication is that some instruments are transposing; what you read (native to that instrument) isn't the note that sounds. (A clarinet or trumpet plays what that instrument ...


2

Another option is to use a transposed G or F clef:


2

You can write the Octave Sign that can indicate octave up or down for the really high and low notes. So for instance you can if you want to notate a note an octave up from. So instead of this... This


1

In writing for the violin family, a small circle also means harmonic, which is produced by lightly touching the string enough to stop it vibrating but not enough to play the note. Sometimes the string is stopped lower down as well, in order to play a different range of harmonics.


1

You're asking quite an advanced question to which there can be many different answers, all true; the idea is the harmonic context. As the man said, in a scale there is A B C♯ D E F♯ G♯ A. Now clearly that last G♯ couldn't be A♭, because the scale demands that the note before the top A, be a G. But if it's a normal G, the scale doesn't come out right. So we ...


53

NReilingh gave a good general-case answer. I'll give you a specific case just to demonstrate that the concept is useful. First consider a C major chord. C-E-G, right? Then you make it into a minor chord by flattening the third, to get C-E♭-G. So far, so good. Now, consider an A♭ major chord: it's spelled A♭-C-E♭. But what happens when ...


22

B and Cb are different notes. One is a kind of B and the other is a kind of C. Information about harmony is contained both in the note name and any accidental alterations to it — C to any kind of E is a third, and C to any kind of F is a fourth, and those intervals have different meanings, even if they sound "the same". And these pitches are only the same ...


11

In classical terminology portamento would probably be the most appropriate naming for the effect you wish to notate, and the notation for that is a slur connecting the notes in the "gliding" range extremities. A curved slur is the most common form of notation: In some instruments that allow for portamento, like the trombone and timpani, a slur may imply ...


0

It simply means the second time you play the right hand slightly differently, sort of arpeggiated. 'Volta' means time or occasion. 'Ossia' is just an alternative part, to be chosen instead of the original under it. Usually an easier option, but ossia doesn't literally mean easier!


4

The one says "2da volta" means "second repeat". You play the given bars in the second repeat while playing the main variant (of the top staff, presumably) otherwise. The "Ossia" means "Other": optionally, you can play the small variant instead of the main variant below it.


0

Some of the references say that its a Ride cymbal which is similar to the hi-hats which is played on the imaginary line above the measure. Actually the 'x' sits on the line and that is the reason it looks like a star.


7

This is an instruction how to play the trills at a) b) and c) [bars 4 and 7 of the Menuet and bar 4 of the Andante]. Check there are small letters that correspond to each trill.


3

I have never seen something like this before and couldn't find anything either, so my guess would be that it's a crash cymbal that lasts a whole note (semibreve). I'm guessing it's shaped like that to resemble the whole note.


0

It's actually simple. So it's like that If it has a F# on the first note, and if the second F doesn't have the accidental called "Natural", then you will have to play the same F with the #. If it has the accidental in the second F like showed up there, you will have to play the normal note of the F, not F#. But if there is a tie from the first F# to the ...


4

A pragmatic answer: if there is a way to notate that repeats are to be played on D.C. or D.S., it is not well known. I'm not saying there is no such standard, only that it is not widespread. The best you can do is to write it out: "D.S. with repeats", or "D.S con repetizione" if you prefer italian.


1

The notes that seem to have 2 different names are actually 2 different notes. If you are only looking for note names then you should be fine - follow the advise of these commentators and you will automatically get the correct sharps or flats for your key signature. But if you are coding music to be played in precise harmony (for example on Supercollider) ...


0

The trem. means tremolo which means to alternate between two beamed notes at the speed of the beaming. If you look at the beams in the score you'll see they are at 32nd note speed hence the 3 beams. The reason for the trem. marking is there because you may just mistake the notes written for 32nd notes instead of a tremolo. I suggest listening too the ...


1

RIGHT HAND PLAYS A# AND C#, rapidly going from one to the other, sounding like a tremolo effect, lasting the whole bar. It's called tremulando.The left hand alternates between E and Fx (F##). Giving a tremulous low diminished seventh chord.


1

Somebody else may know better, but as far as I know there's yet no simple to use piece of software that allows what you need. Polyphonic pitch recogniton software exists with pretty sophiscated capabilities, but they cannot guess what part of the signal is of interest to you or simply distinguish a melody from accompaniment. In simple terms, the sw is going ...


2

"bis" is just Latin for "twice", it's a pretty common expression in romance language countries, not so much in other ones, I guess. I had never seen it in tablatures before, but I suppose the meaning should be to repeat the previous segment.


6

I think the answer is "no, there isn't a standard notation for this." I've never seen one, anyway. But dynamic marks intended for humans (i.e. not for computer playback) have traditionally relied on common-sense interpretation. For example If you have "ff" and the next 50 or 100 bars of music contain several short crescendo hairpins with gaps in between ...


5

The point of roman numeral analysis is to represent what certain chords "do" in the key, or how they functional (and it's often called "functional analysis'). If the music wasn't written to be functional (like a soundscape, early polyphony, or some modern music), it's not very helpful to analyze with functionality in mind. Some kinds of music are better ...


1

It's what I use. In key A, though, G will be bVII rather than #VI as you suggest, as G# is the normal VII in A, so flattening G# makes the Roman numeral bVII.



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