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The Beatles Complete Scores was originally produced and edited in Japan in 1989. The transcriptions are attributed to 4 Japanase guy's, but there is almost no information about the typesetting process, which has some additional specificities. The book has a kind of preface that mentions some specific symbols used for different instruments and vocals, but ...


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Whole notes should appear near the beginning of the measure. When other notes are present, it should be vertically aligned with the first note/rest in the bar. This is a good example from PianoAndSynth.com: You can see that each first note is approximately the same distance from the left barline or key signature, whether a whole or otherwise, and no ...


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Bob Broadley's answer shows the best that most (commercial) notation programs can do without "faking" the output, but in complicated situations this style of notation can be easier to read: The notes in the tuplets are spaced relative to the other notes in the score as if the bar-lines did not exist. (Note, the image was requested by the OP to explain my ...


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I haven't listened to the music you link to; besides, it sounds from the comments like the rhythm may not in fact be in triplets. However, if you do want to notate triplets across a barline, you can just use a different triplet value and tie across the barline. Both the examples below give the same rhythm: nine consecutive crotchet triplets. However, the ...


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The composer, Simandl, lived mainly in the 19th century (1840-1912) so he was writing after the time when ornaments almost always "started on the beat". Beethoven (died 1827) was probably the first major composer whose ornaments were mostly played before the beat, and that style has continued to the present time. Ornaments were often written conventionally ...


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Other answers have mentioned that these are ornaments. As such, try not to think too much about how much they are actually 'worth' in terms of note length. Here is what I hope is some practical advice on playing them. Hopefully it's not too odd! I agree that it might feel 'right' at first to want to play the three-note ornament before the beat, but as ...


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In the fourth bar of the same Chopin prelude you also find something equally suspicious from the point of view of modern notation practice. There it's seven notes written with a single beam even though their duration is just a quarter note. You'd understand it from context there as well. Septuples can be confusing, and many people mistakenly would write, ...


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The three notes of the appoggiatura take time away from the following note (the D), not the preceding one. As per http://www.ars-nova.com/Theory%20Q&A/Q94.html: "Double appoggiatura" and "triple appoggiatura" are names for pairs or triplets of grace notes that are played quickly at the time of the primary tone that they precede. When written as ...


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The "rule" is that beaming and note grouping should not obscure the beat. In particular it should not obscure the mid-point of a 4/4 bar. These rules can serve us well, but are also routinely broken :-) (Has to be an Answer because of the necessary picture attachment)


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Theoretically, you're right, I think. Strictly, the example you show should be read as "play these 10 notes with the same duration that 8 normal 16th notes would have", i.e., the total duration of a half note, which does not fit the meter. This may be a (graphical) composition mistake, or a simplification for readability (a lot of beam lines in this case ...


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This isn't going to be played with mathematical precision. Along with the "smorzando", the choice of note value indicates a relaxed tempo related to the preceding 16th note, rather than something twice as fast. As you say, there is plenty of information in the rest of the notation.


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Here is sort of a skeleton to work with. But the title of your question and the tags you use are completely useless for finding this question and/or related issue on StackExchange ever again. You should seriously spruce them up. Even then, this question might have been better asked on the LilyPond user mailing list. And all the involved features are ...


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I don't entirely agree with the other answers I see here. From my experience, as well as looking at quantization values offered in DAWs, a swing feel can be varied, sometimes based on genre but other times based on the style of the players and/or composer. The concept of swinging is that the note value that is swung, in your example the 1/8 note, is pushed ...


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I wonder, did you mean the dot to be AFTER the third quaver (eighth note), rather than as a staccato mark? If so, the two are different. In the first example, the single beat is split into 3 equal parts, and in the second, the dotted quaver is three times as long as the last quaver, assuming the last quaver is actually a semiquaver (16th note), otherwise it ...


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If the song is swing or jazz, then most likely yes. Some sheet music will have a marking at the beginning of the song, which will read "Swing Feel" or "eighths (quavers) should be played as triplets" (Like in your example).But most sheet music won't have these markings, it is implied though, since most swing and jazz music are played using this swing feel. ...


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I've just gone through a number of baroque books and looked at buying the Neumann book mentioned above (Not going to happen at that price though). I finally found the answer though at http://baroqueguitar.homestead.com/The_Baroque_Guitar.htm which states that the bracket means a mordent. I hope this is helpful to anyone else who has been puzzled by this.


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It could be some type of ornament from the baroque or renaissance period. It would help to identify the piece, the composer, and the edition of the music the example came from. The sign is certainly included in the recent comprehensive standard for music fonts - see glpyh U+E572 here: https://w3c.github.io/smufl/gitbook/tables/other-baroque-ornaments.html A ...


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That means on the first and third repeats, play piano (quietly), on the second repeat, play forte (loudly).


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The duration of the beat is set by the tempo marking, usually an italian word like lento, andante, vivace, etc. that you may have noticed at the beginning of musical scores. These words correspond to an approximate setting of beats per minute (bpm), that you find for example in wikipedia and is usually also marked on the scales of metronomes. But the ...


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One beat is as long as the composer says it will be. Usually signified at the beginning of a piece with 'bpm', This stands for beats per minute, so if it stated 60bpm, there would be one beat every second.A tune twice as fast would be 120bpm. No-one actually times abeats per se, but instead would use a metronome to set the speed of the piece.It's also very ...


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If you listen to the recording, the melody voice in bars 88-89 really goes f f f g g g ees c' | g ...; this is probably a way how the author wanted to present this fact, using voice/staff switching lines. It would have been actually better to use the proper notation of the leading voice:


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May I suggest that it is not an 'x' per se, but actually two lines clarifying the voice leading for the top voices. Such lines are found in the first two bars as well.


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There is a difference between "conventional musical terms that were originally Italian" and "the Italian language". A common example is "con sordino" with a mute or "sordini" (plural) - the "correct" Italian is sordina/sordine, but most musicians either don't know or don't care whether their mutes are grammatically masculine or feminine. Another is "D.S. ...


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Most melodies - in any style - can be transcribed using: 1) pitches, 2) rhythms, 3) motives, 4) phrases, 5) overall form. Unfortunately, in the videos you cited, the musician does not play the rhythms consistently each time the example is played. Therefore, I based my transcription on the overall performance of the second video (the one where the keyboard ...


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Sometimes when you have F# in the key signature, it's better to use E♯ so you don't have to go through the trouble of making F natural and then making it sharp after again. Same with C♭.


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One way of thinking about it is to avoid the equal temperament trap and assuming things like G#=A♭. This is not the case. The theory side of it is based on harmonic context in which you can not have 2 of the "same" note (e.g. D♭ and D#) in one scale. For instance, the A♭m (aeolian) scale goes as such: A♭, B♭, C♭, D♭, E♭, F♭, G♭, A♭. You cannot have B♭ and B ...


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The preferred method depends on the instrument in question. The violin and the clarinet, for examples, are accustomed to playing a couple octaves' worth of ledger lines above the trebleclef. Cello parts may have a stack of ledger lines, or they may jump from bass to clef, or get annotated "8va" . I once had to explain to a music major (underclass) that, ...


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Music is fundamentally made up of intervals, which are ratios of pitches (sound frequencies). The "simpler" the ratio, as in a fraction with smaller numbers, the more consonant the interval. For example: the perfect octave is 2:1, the perfect fifth is 3:2, major third is 5:4, the diminished fourth is 32:25. To produce music, we chain the intervals together, ...


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Another way is to use ledger lines. Ledger lines and different clefs (by octave or other transposition) are all common. One (supposedly) uses whatever is easiest to read. A related complication is that some instruments are transposing; what you read (native to that instrument) isn't the note that sounds. (A clarinet or trumpet plays what that instrument ...


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Another option is to use a transposed G or F clef:


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You can write the Octave Sign that can indicate octave up or down for the really high and low notes. So for instance you can if you want to notate a note an octave up from. So instead of this... This


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In writing for the violin family, a small circle also means harmonic, which is produced by lightly touching the string enough to stop it vibrating but not enough to play the note. Sometimes the string is stopped lower down as well, in order to play a different range of harmonics.


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You're asking quite an advanced question to which there can be many different answers, all true; the idea is the harmonic context. As the man said, in a scale there is A B C♯ D E F♯ G♯ A. Now clearly that last G♯ couldn't be A♭, because the scale demands that the note before the top A, be a G. But if it's a normal G, the scale doesn't come out right. So we ...


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NReilingh gave a good general-case answer. I'll give you a specific case just to demonstrate that the concept is useful. First consider a C major chord. C-E-G, right? Then you make it into a minor chord by flattening the third, to get C-E♭-G. So far, so good. Now, consider an A♭ major chord: it's spelled A♭-C-E♭. But what happens when ...


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B and Cb are different notes. One is a kind of B and the other is a kind of C. Information about harmony is contained both in the note name and any accidental alterations to it — C to any kind of E is a third, and C to any kind of F is a fourth, and those intervals have different meanings, even if they sound "the same". And these pitches are only the same ...



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