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0

In principle key signatures apply to all octaves, while individual accidentals apply only to the octave, where they appear. Sometimes score editors are helpful by repeating individual accidentals (courtesy or cautionary accidentals); if these are not especially marked (smaller print, parentheses) it makes the rule more diffcult to recognize for the ...


2

Most scales are assumed to be octave-repeating, due to the way that we hear a similarity between notes that are an octave apart (the reason for this being that with many instruments, any note contains harmonic partials at the frequencies of all the overtones of a note an octave below). This includes the diatonic scale, which is the scale that standard ...


5

Accidentals in a key signature always apply to any octave you play in. The human ear hears the same note in neighbouring octaves as almost identical (in fact, many people have a hard time distinguishing them at all). People sing along to a tune in a higher or lower octave with no qualms, and often without noticing. Some instruments, e.g. kettle drums, emit ...


0

Great question! I also wondered about this for a while. Each note in a scale should have a different letter name. For example, the D major scale doesn't have the same letter twice: D E F# G A B C# D If the scale had flats instead of sharps, G and D would be used twice and F and C would not be used at all: D E Gb G A B Db D Double flats/sharps were ...


3

Regarding the doubled-up G: The composer has written the musical effect he requires. He hasn't been pedantic over exactly how the player will achieve it. The L.H. will of course need to release the G early so that the R.H. can play it as part of the melody. I don't think you'll find it a great practical difficulty.


1

It is usually when both hands are playing low that the bass clef gets inserted where the treble clef usually is. The inverse can also happen when both hands are playing high.


1

I think the extra bass clef is a reminder. The last note before the crotchet (quarter note) rest is D (above middle C). It is the last note in a rising chromatic scale, the next note of which might conceivably be D# or E (above middle C). Therefore, the musician might be expecting the next note to be in the vicinity of E above middle C, not over an octave ...


6

Sometimes, the notes to be played in a piece are very high in the bass clef, so instead of putting them on leger lines above the clef, the sign changes to treble clef and the dots are easier to read. The opposite also happens - notes too low in the treble clef get written in the bass clef, to save counting lower leger lines.


8

They indicate a temporary switch of clefs. The main reason why they are used here is to aid reading, by seperating the left and right hand, giving each its own stave. The little clef in the fourth measure is to draw even more attention that a switch of clefs will be coming in the next line.


1

Although perhaps not the easiest version, but one which will give you the most theoretical background, is the Circle of Fifths; this is especially useful for determining the number of flats or sharps in a scale, or given a number of sharps or flats, determining in which key you are playing. You start at C, which in major does not have any sharps or flats. ...


0

You need to back up a bit, to see the wood and not the trees, you can't break it down like that, you can't do one without the other nor t'other without the one, so because it's not logical to talk of it distinctly, there's no term for it. It all comes from beat, where interference patterns make new tones in the harmonics. Xenakis is talking about one of the ...


1

The difference in execution is obvious without the sustain(!) (not, as you wrote, the damper) pedal. With the sustain pedal in place, you'd still retain the mechanical difference in execution. Arguably a returning key and a half-returning damper still make a noise but that's a bit of hair-splitting. What isn't, however, is that the arpeggio is rolled and ...


5

The issue is your assumption that the horn and trumpet are in fact in F and B-flat. Trumpets can be pitched in a variety of keys, and horn historically has played in one harmonic series or another without the use of valves, but by using crooks to pitch the instrument in one key or another. In this case, the horn part is written in C and the trumpet part is ...


7

Every scale will have ONE of each letter name - for a full major or full minor. Starting with C major, with no # or b. The circle of fourths (or fifths, depending which way you go) will give a formula. Go up in fourths, and it will add one extra flat each time. thus - F - has Bb (the fourth note of itself). Up another fourth takes it to Bb - with 2 b, the ...


7

The key thing to remember is that for diatonic scales (major, minor and the modes) each note has a different letter name. In your example F G A A C D E F (ignoring the flats/sharps) has a duplicated letter; thus the 4th note must be a B. One way to lay out a scale is to put the notes in order, e.g. B C D E F G A, and then figure out where the flats/sharps ...


5

What you are looking for are key signatures. A key signature determines which flats/sharps to use on a scale. The flats/sharps that appear, do so in a certain order, not random. So, if you see 1 flat, you have to play B♭, if you see 2 flats, you have to play B♭ and E♭ etc. So, if you begin to read a sheet music and you see 2 flats, then ...


1

'a2' also shows up in percussion parts. even when there is only one written part (snare drum, for ex.) a composer occasionally wants a second player to 'double' what is being played, either for volume or added color/texture. bolero is a good example. toward the end, a 2nd snare drummer is supposed to join in. (this is not always done, but it is in the ...


7

Roman numerals can be used for aspects of instrumental notation, which are for performance, rather than analytical purposes. For instance, Roman numerals are used to denote: positions in classical guitar music (for instance, see this post); which string a note or passage is to be played on in bowed string music. The wikipedia page about Roman Numerals ...


2

You have guessed correctly. The correct musical term for groups of three notes with a three on top is called a Triplet And such irregular type of rhythmic notation is called a tuplet. Anyway, in the case of triplets, three notes will equal the time of two notes. meaning if there are three eight notes then they will take the time of two eighth notes in ...


1

It might be useful to think of it this way. The second violins, for instance, are a section; they normally play together as a section. Many scores don't specify how many second violins are in the orchestra; they just expect there to be as many as the orchestra has. When the composer needs this second violin section to change its behavior and split into two ...


4

Normally this would be enough, I think: The '0' indicates that an open string is to be used (in this case the high 'e' string). And from the context you would infer which string to use for the other 'e'. If you want to be more explicit that the other 'e' should be on the b-string you could notate this as well: The number with a circle indicates which ...


1

my teacher replied via text. the note with a tail down and a tail up


1

In Guitar the way to tell where to play a note is usually defined by the context... meaning, what were you playing before that note and what is to come after, what are the fingerings e.t.c e.t.c. When more specification is needed the number of the string is written inside a circle above or bellow and a bit to the right of the note like in the pic bellow. ...


0

There are indications that you can write on the staff that pertain to both of your questions (for frets and also picking hand). It's much easier if you check this link: http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.19/Documentation/notation/common-notation-for-fretted-strings#right_002dhand-fingerings ...than if I were to write it out. :) Although to clarify the two ...


3

The only way I've come across is to have two dots (heads) on the stem - one either side of it, on the top space. Looking rather like if you had to play a D and an E simultaneously, when the music would show one each side of a stem because they would otherwise end up as a big blob if they were both printed on the correct side. The fingering would make it a ...


0

This should be thought of as a root-position seventh chord with a ninth added to it. You wrote: I know it isn't some kind of inversion, since the V9 inversions are indicated differently. In fact, it's even easier than you thought. :) It's not an inversion, it's in root position. Basically, it's almost the same as just writing "7", which is also root ...


0

They want you to add the ninth and the seventh of the chord. You can leave out the fifth. It is the least important note of the triad and just add those two notes. Remember the seventh still has to resolve. I'm curious as to why the indications are between the staves. That seems poor to me. I have never seen that before.


7

It's figured bass and while typically associated with analysis and chords the meaning typically differs. As you said typically when thinking in chords or analysis in a V9 the 7th is implied. However, in figured bass only the typical triad is implied unless otherwise noted so just putting the 9 would make the harmony add9 instead of dominant 9. So yes it is ...


12

This means "approximately equal to". I found this with a quick Google search. Here is an example of a webpage confirming the meaning of this symbol. I must confess, I prefer to use "c.", the abbreviation for circa, in metronome markings. Here's an example: I've also seen the "wiggly" equal sign used in metronome marks. It's the top one at this webpage ...


10

It's actually Ped, and just instructs the pianist to use the sustain pedal, in this section.


8

It means to use hold down the damper pedal until the end of the dash. The effect is that every note you play while the pedal is held down is sustained. There are actually a few variations of this notation with another popular form of it shown here. The idea behind the other common form is to show where you press the pedal (the PED) and where you release the ...



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