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16

This is an Turn, an ornament consisting of four notes. The double-sharp symbol indicates that the lower note to be performed is a g double-sharp rather than a natural g, so the sequnce to be performed is b, a sharp, g double-sharp, a sharp.


10

This is called a turn. The 'basic' version would be written without the accidentals, and the player would play the first note, then quickly play one tone (note) above, the main note again, a tone below, the main note, and the resolve one the final note. The accidentals clarify exactly which notes to "twiddle" to. The turn can be either directly over a ...


9

Trills are (unfortunately) one of those things that only constant repetition will aid. Your body is not naturally used to the movements required for trills. When you constantly practice them, your brain will eventually pick up on the movements and it will become natural to you. Note, by "constant", I don't mean a two hour crash course session playing ...


8

The first thing to realize is that notation and performance are different in Baroque, Classical, and Romantic music. The Romantic rules apply to Beethoven and later composers. The small squiggle (two zigs and two zags) means three notes, the first on the note, the second on the note a step higher (the "auxiliary note"), and the third on the note again. On ...


7

According to Bach's father's own Explication concerning the trills and ornaments, we are given a guide on how to interpret the trills. The Expliation was later expanded on by C.P.E. Bach. There is no question that an historically correct interpretation will start the trill on the upper auxiliary note (in this case the A). The ornament does not descent to an ...


6

Here is the Table of Ornaments with which Bach prefaced his Clavier-Büchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach: To put it simply, what he wrote there (according to the MS and Bach Gesellschaft edition) was a short trill starting on the upper auxiliary.


5

My advice: relax. You can't make a trill faster by straining; as soon as you notice you start straining, take a step back and begin slowly and relaxed again. I would advice against flicking, since this will induce unnecessary strains in your finger, and will not be a viable option in the long term. Another trick: my piano teacher always used to try and have ...


5

In these sorts of cases, I trust the community of professional and semi-professional musicians more than my own music history knowledge. (Read: I searched youtube for several videos and saw what they did). For the uninitiated who stumble upon this question: a mordent is the proper name for the squiggle above the staff in measure 4. It is similar to a trill, ...


5

A little sharp below the turn sign:


4

I got an answer to this question after talking to a few musicians. The auxiliary note is determined by the melodic context. For example, in D major, an auxiliary F and D should be raised. Now, the trick is that there may very well be modulations so, for example, a piece starting in D major could turn into B minor, in which case the 7th (A) will likely be ...


4

The key to this section is the term "Senza tempo", which means "not in tempo", or in other words that this is completely free decoration. The rising arpeggio in the left hand can be taken leisurely, and the small notes can start when you feel like, and at the speed you feel like (usually pretty fast though). Really they are a variant form of trill, which ...


4

Czerny has an exercise for right hand trills on all finger pairs: Exercise #36 in "125 Exercises in Passage Playing, Opus 261, Book 1". It's short just musical enough to not be overly boring. A little Czerny every day has really helped my technique.


3

The anatomical problem is not so much that the 5th finger is weak (on its own it is as strong as the others) but that the 4th and 5th are not fully independent since they are operated by different parts of the same muscle, and in "normal life" they don't get much use that develops their independence. A simple demonstration of this: put your hand flat on a ...


3

Start small and work your way up. Start with a hammer-on, for example, on the A string between frets 7 and 9, between index and ring fingers. This is probably the easiest place to trill, at least it is for me. Get that hammer-on good and solid. Try your best to make it faster. Once you master that hammer-on, immediately do a pull-off, and let the lower ...


3

I wouldn't interpret stretto as accelerando. My guess is that Chopin put it there to prevent the other natural interpretation of the passage, which is to slow down, from happening. So, instead of doing an accelerando, the passage under the dashes should just be generally faster/flowing, probably slowing down during the last hairpin (>). You'll need to ...


2

Kenneth Wollitz in his The Recorder Book suggests using the alternative G fingering you describe, and trilling on your right third finger. I just tried it, and it seems pretty reasonable.


2

Here is a great exercise I used to give to students as they get started doing hammer-ons and pull-offs, just pick it the first time and make a trill drill out of it. Starting in the first four frets, where the 1st finger is on the 1st fret, 2nd finger on the 2nd fret, 3rd finger on the 3rd fret, and 4th finger on the 4th fret: Do every possible combination, ...


2

How about using acciaccaturas? Sure, you won't get exactly the triplet rhythms, but if you want those exactly you wouldn't use ornaments. This is how it would look: You could use a pair of acciaccaturas each time with a single (quaver) beam, but the double beam seems more in keeping with the surrounding music to me, and suggests the rapidity with which ...


2

Anything that works for you is legit! Try holding the arm very steady,so that your bent fingers have just the tips touching the keys. Articulate from the knuckles closest to the palm. Some trills can work from a side to side movement of the hand. Pinkies are the weakest, therefore the worst to trill with. Move the hand across, so you use other fingers. ...


2

In the Henle Urtext edition there is no tie on G# and nothing is said about it in the commentary. This suggests that there is no ambiguity: it should be repeated. Also the grace notes should be in the following bar which may or may not affect your interpretation. And the slur should start on the half note G#, there is no slur on the preceding 16th notes. But ...


1

Hanon also has finger strengthening and trill exercizes.


1

Usually that would mean the main note, unless the editor actually writes out the ornamentation and puts the fingerings on that. It's also important to try and figure out the logic behing the fingering by looking at the context – what happens before, and what happens after.


1

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mordent: "Although mordents are now thought of as just a single alternation between notes, in the Baroque period it appears that a Mordent may sometimes have been executed with more than one alternation between the indicated note and the note below, making it a sort of inverted trill." I gather that our modern ...


1

I've heard this played two different ways: Option 1: Option 2: I believe the first one may be more technically correct, but you'd have to ask a baroque specialist. There may be other options as well, but these should be fairly in-line with the original style.


1

I'm looking at the imslp.org's photocopy of an original score, so I hope I got the right spot (no images allowed thru corporate proxywall :-( ). My guess is to start with the upper note of the trill as a sort of grace-note just prior to hitting the triad; then release the full triad prior to the final sixteenth. At least, that's how I'd approach a similar ...


1

They look very much like the second ornament on the bottom line of the guide (idem), and I have heard them played like that. Of course, they look shorter, like a combination of that "uphook" and the mordent. With this interpretation you could also play the first one as B-A#-G#-A#, especially if your tempo is faster. I think I prefer the more finalizing ...



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