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30

There are several reason. The most basic would be “so that they could play together”. A symphonic orchestra is much bigger than a band, and being in perfect sync with the player at the other side of the stage or pit can be hard without visual cues. In smaller ensemble, such as a quartet, quintet, or even chamber orchestra, there might be no conductor or the ...


17

Let me try to add to the excellent answers. In general: Your question is legit, but it can be readily explained with scale. Compare: "me and my brother built a doghouse yesterday - why building a skyscraper needs an architect and blueprints?" :) More in detail: The musicians are presumably professionals who have had much practice at this point, so why ...


8

Make or buy yourself some flash cards for bass clef notes. Begin with a very small subset of cards -- choose several that you can identify reliably, such as middle C. If you have, say, 3 easy cards and 2 slightly harder cards, that's a good combination. On the back of the card, write the name of the note. Now shuffle and quiz yourself. Say the names of ...


7

Édouard gave the politically correct answer, but things are a bit more complicated. TL;DR During concerts the conductor does mostly more than necessary, most of his/her work takes place during rehearsals. Turns out, experienced orchestras (not an orchestra of experienced musicians, but an orchestra that has lots of experience playing as that same ...


6

In orchestral music, tempo often varies a lot, and it's much harder for a large group of players to speed up / slow down together than it is for them to just keep going at the same speed, so a single source of 'pulse' is useful here. Édouard mentioned the size of the orchestra making it hard to hear - one reason is that an orchestra pit can be 20 metres or ...


5

Accidentals in a key signature always apply to any octave you play in. The human ear hears the same note in neighbouring octaves as almost identical (in fact, many people have a hard time distinguishing them at all). People sing along to a tune in a higher or lower octave with no qualms, and often without noticing. Some instruments, e.g. kettle drums, emit ...


4

There are orchestral/wind ensemble instruments that regularly use the C clefs, in everyday situations. Some of the C clefs have conventional names for themselves, and certain instruments use them: Alto Clef When the C clef is centered on the 3rd line of the staff it's called an alto clef, or viola clef. Instruments that generally use this clef include: ...


4

Shift your perception down by one whole line/space. C below the treble clef is one line below the clef; C below the bass clef is two. High F is the top line of the treble clef; the top F of the bass clef is the second-from-top line. C on the treble clef is the space above the middle line; C on the bass clef is the space below the middle line... and so forth. ...


4

Lots of the points have already been made, but regarding the need for the score I'll give an example which illustrates the point. I play in a guitar orchestra of 25 - in our last rehearsal our conductor added no less than 16 new instructions to the score for a piece that is only a few minutes long - including what tone to play (dolce, ponticello, ...


4

I'd go with the Venice archive variants, but then, I probably wouldn't go with Longo's edition - he had some tendency to "correct" things. Kenneth Gilbert's Urtext edition (Volume 5 here) goes entirely with Venice. I don't know if K. 208 is to be found in the Münster (Santini) or Parma archives as well (can't find indexes), but then, we lack anything ...


3

A conductor provides different things at different levels of musician skill. At the lowest level of skill, they keeps time and tempo for you. As you learn to keep your own time and tempo, they begins to provide dynamics. As you learn dynamics, they provides key cues. It is not uncommon to have a long pause followed by a sharp note in many instruments at ...


3

Conductors are not actually required; there is a long history of conductorless orchestras. However, having a conductor is certainly useful for the reasons stated in the other answers. It's also worth noting that the conductor often has a leadership and training role in the orchestra -- so it's a bit like asking "why does a basketball team need a coach?" As ...


3

I've played both piano and bass guitar, and what helps me is a bit of transposition. Find a tune that you can play on your right hand, in treble clef, well. Make sure it's something you could stand to listen to like 100 more times. Using a blank staff (lines on a piece of notebook paper work fine), transpose that line into bass clef. A G in treble clef ...


3

There simply is no easy way about it. You begin at your entry points (as I like to call them) F being on the second line from top and G being on the bottom line on the staff. You may also find it useful to write the letters A-B-C-D-E-F-G out on your answer book. You have notes on lines and in spaces and when you go down on the staff you count backwards and ...


3

There are three clefs in general use, the G clef, the F clef and the C clef. The G clef is normally positioned on the second line up, indicating that this line is G. This is commonly called the "Treble clef". A common variation is the sub-octave treble clef, shown either with a small figure 8 below or as a repeated G clef symbol. This is used for tenor ...


3

This is something that will improve with time, but you should practice regularly if you want to improve it faster. Even a few minutes a day only spent reading bass clef (not playing the piano) should be enough. If you’re taking public transportation, this is a great place to practice. The restroom is a good place as well.


3

Here are the standard clefs available in the Sibelius music notation program. There are 22 of them, not counting guitar tablature. A few of the clef symbols are alternate ways of notating the same thing ("Treble down 8"), but as you can see, most are distinct. The other thing to note is that there are only three basic symbols for pitched instruments ("G", ...


3

I am by no means a Scarlatti expert, and have no specific knowledge of this piece, but in general: It depends on your audience. If this is something formal (like an audition), you'll want to find out if they have a preference as to source material. If you're playing it for your own benefit, or your friends, or even a college recital, go with your ear. Just ...


2

The following image shows the alto "C", bass "F", and treble "G" clefs alongside each other in the most common position. These are the most common clefs for pitched instruments. "Non-pitched percussion", (e.g., a drum set, but not xylophones or chimes), will often use the percussion clef (see Nick B.'s answer). (Images courtesy of Wikipedia.) ...


2

Treble and bass clefs each have a few variations. An 8 or 15 above the clef means 8va or 15ma respectively (one or two octaves higher). In bass clef, the 8 or 15 can be below the staff, telling the player to play one or two octaves lower. Other clefs include soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto, tenor, and baritone. Finally, there is also a percussion clef. There ...


2

Practice sight-reading a single line on the bass clef on its own. You can find plenty of music for cello, bassoon, songs for bass voice, etc, to download from http://imslp.org/. I started as a keyboard player, and The way I taught myself to read "less common" clefs, like C clefs on any line of the stave in old vocal scores was to focus on just a few ...


2

When I was in college, I helped a few people with learning to read new clefs. One tuba especially really needed help with treble clef. Know that whatever method works for you to learn it, eventually you become fluent and the method disappears, much like it did with treble clef. As you guessed, what you need is exposure to more bass clef and you'll be able ...


2

I'm a guitar player, so naturally I learned the treble clef first, and only much later did I need to learn the bass clef. I remember what helped me a lot then. It is maybe trivial and all too obvious, but as a pure visual help I imagined that the notes stay where they are (with respect to the treble clef) and that the lines shift up by one. I.e., I tried to ...


2

Most scales are assumed to be octave-repeating, due to the way that we hear a similarity between notes that are an octave apart (the reason for this being that with many instruments, any note contains harmonic partials at the frequencies of all the overtones of a note an octave below). This includes the diatonic scale, which is the scale that standard ...


2

The are two basic types of editions; performing editions where the editor tells you how he/she thinks the piece should go, and urtext editions which tell you what the composer wrote, or show you all the alternatives if that is not known exactly. Longo is unashamedly a performing edition in the style of piano-playing 100 years ago, and almost every note of ...


1

A conductor is especially needed when there is a large group of musicians and the music being performed is such that the tempo is constantly changing -- gradually speeding up, slowing down, or radically changing speeds suddenly. And it is the conductor's job to choose how much to speed up or slow down, and when. The same goes for the dynamics -- how loud or ...


1

Get a book of songs in whatever style/genre you like, transposed for bass/baritone. Best is if the book contains some songs you know well and some you don't. Every day choose a song and spend some time sight-singing. Sight-singing creates strong connections in your brain; I really think it's the best method.


1

It helped me to write notes on an empty stave. Perhaps you could start with scales in different keys up to let's say three sharps, three flats. When you feel comfortable, try to write chord progression, e.g. tonic, subdominant, and dominant (I, IV, V) in those keys and then try different variations. Another popular chord progression is II, V and I. This will ...


1

Yes there are two other less often used clefs that every musician should also know of. The alto clef. With middle C being on the middle line on the staff And the tenor clef. With middle C being on the second line from top on the staff.


1

They are the ones used on pianos and guitars, but some instruments have their range awkwardly situated for inclusion in one or the other - treble or bass. Thus, there is a C clef, which locates middle C on any line needed. As in the third line up, for example, where B in the treble lives normally. That then means the notes playable by the instrument mostly ...



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