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53

NReilingh gave a good general-case answer. I'll give you a specific case just to demonstrate that the concept is useful. First consider a C major chord. C-E-G, right? Then you make it into a minor chord by flattening the third, to get C-E♭-G. So far, so good. Now, consider an A♭ major chord: it's spelled A♭-C-E♭. But what happens when ...


22

B and Cb are different notes. One is a kind of B and the other is a kind of C. Information about harmony is contained both in the note name and any accidental alterations to it — C to any kind of E is a third, and C to any kind of F is a fourth, and those intervals have different meanings, even if they sound "the same". And these pitches are only the same ...


5

As an example (this is fairly common) below is an excerpt from a Bagatelle in C minor by Beethoven (imslp link). Notice the F and C (!!) are sharpened. Also notice As and Es are natural. So what's happening here is that Beethoven is going outside the key for a bit, probably using borrowed chords (I'm not as fast an analyzer as I should be). Why does he ...


4

A pragmatic answer: if there is a way to notate that repeats are to be played on D.C. or D.S., it is not well known. I'm not saying there is no such standard, only that it is not widespread. The best you can do is to write it out: "D.S. with repeats", or "D.S con repetizione" if you prefer italian.


3

You can (theoretically) read a score without bar lines, and indeed bars (or measures) and bar lines, in the sense that we use today, are a relatively new invention, from the mid of 17th century. Before that, "bar" lines were not used at all, or were used only to visually divide a piece into sections or phrases. In fact if we go all the way back to Gregorian ...


3

Standard sheet music specifies the octaves quite precisely. The lowest line in the treble clef, for example, is E4 (the E in the fourth octave): Ledger lines can also be added above and below the staves to extend their range, and you might sometimes see 8va written above or below certain notes to indicate that they should be played an octave higher or ...


3

Music is fundamentally made up of intervals, which are ratios of pitches (sound frequencies). The "simpler" the ratio, as in a fraction with smaller numbers, the more consonant the interval. For example: the perfect octave is 2:1, the perfect fifth is 3:2, major third is 5:4, the diminished fourth is 32:25. To produce music, we chain the intervals together, ...


3

You can definitely encounter things like this for a variety of reasons. One place you would frequently see this is within a key such as D minor (1 flat); in common practice theory, the seventh degree is altered (when needed) to create a leading tone and within D minor, this would be C#. Other chromatic activity will also be best spelled out through #s even ...


3

In the Common Practice Period (technical name for composers doing what I'm describing), the keys were (and still are) divided into two modes, major and minor. Each of the 12 (not counting enharmonic things like C#=Db) major keys consist of the usual 7-note major scale pattern: SSHSSSH (from C, DEFGABC). The minor modes have a flat third (Eb in the case of C) ...


3

The two accidental signs after the high A are natural signs. You play G-natural and F-natural when descending in the A Melodic-Minor Scale. The A will never be altered in any kind of A-scale. More generally, the 6th and 7th scale degrees in a Melodic-Minor Scale are considered movable and may change through the course of a piece to suit the melody. The ...


3

For accidentals, one often chooses to write a sharp if the next note moves upwards and a flat if it moves downward. For example, in G major, a Db would usually moved down to C and a C# move upwards to D. This avoids having a large number of naturals (C,C#,D vs C,Db,Dn for example.) Likewise, were the current chord an A major chord, C# would be preferred to ...


2

That is the french down bow sign, which is the same thing as normal down bow.


2

Just adding to the previous two answers, there are three types of minor scales: Natural Minor - all notes are the same going up and coming down Harmonic Minor - The 7th note is sharp going up and going down Melodic Minor - The 6th & 7th notes are sharp going up but natural coming down. In the example you've given, they're using the Melodic Minor ...


2

Another option is to use a transposed G or F clef:


2

You can write the Octave Sign that can indicate octave up or down for the really high and low notes. So for instance you can if you want to notate a note an octave up from. So instead of this... This


1

Coda means "tail" in Italian. It's a tail-end part of a longer piece. A coda may be used however a composer wishes: to extend a cadence, to recapitulate some material, even to introduce new material.


1

The preferred method depends on the instrument in question. The violin and the clarinet, for examples, are accustomed to playing a couple octaves' worth of ledger lines above the trebleclef. Cello parts may have a stack of ledger lines, or they may jump from bass to clef, or get annotated "8va" . I once had to explain to a music major (underclass) that, ...


1

Generally, the pitch is fixed. However, if you are playing music for other instruments, there may be some justification for adjusting pitches. For example, guitar is usually written one octave higher than it is played (when written correctly, an 8 below the clef indicates the shift). However, its bass notes tend to have an "unmuddier" sound than that of ...


1

You're asking quite an advanced question to which there can be many different answers, all true; the idea is the harmonic context. As the man said, in a scale there is A B C♯ D E F♯ G♯ A. Now clearly that last G♯ couldn't be A♭, because the scale demands that the note before the top A, be a G. But if it's a normal G, the scale doesn't come out right. So we ...


1

If all you're given is chords, then you don't really have enough information to go on to answer that question. It's up to you to pick the chord inversions/voicings and decide how high or low to play them, and so on. One simple way to play that Dm, for example, might be to play D4-F4-A5 in the right hand and D3 in the left hand. The C would be C4-E4-G4 ...


1

Yes the bass is generally played with the left hand on the keyboard, when played with 2 hands. I think your question is very general because these rules can always be broken, i.e,. the chords can be played in the right hand and the melody played with the left, but allow me to clarify something. The bass isn't necessesarily dependent on the hand you play it ...


1

Thanks to the comment by alephzero, we can figure the whole thing out easily. The notation rules are that any expression, technique, or instruction text starts in the music where the start of the above appears. This is also how notation software works. If you were to start execution at the end of the instruction then the position in the music would depend ...


1

A crescendo applies until contradiction, either up to a decrescendo (then it remains unclear, which level to achieve) or to an absolute volume indication. If I see correctly, in the bar below yours marked with (1) the seems to be a piano marking directly beneath the octave transposition. Assuming, that (due to the metronome marking in the upper left) there ...


1

The crescendo starts where the word "cresc." is. It SHOULD lead to an explicit dynamic, and unless very short should be extended with a dotted line to indicate the extent. The composer here is being rather imprecise in indicating what he wants.


1

Cresc., or crescendo, means getting gradually louder than it has been. It starts where your 2 is. It'll continue getting louder until there's another sign, maybe an f or ff, at which point, the volume will level out until another sign is shown. It's shown in the bar marked 1, in anticipation for the start of the next bar, although with a gradual cresc. it ...


1

Think of the three beats as counted 1,2,3. Then the subdivisions can be counted as 1 & 2 & 3 &. So the dotted quarter takes up 1 & 2; then the eighth note the next & and the last quarter note as 3.(Quarter note = Crochet, Eighth note = Quaver) Actually, any short syllable can be used instead of "and." The 3/4 means three main pulses; ...


1

Technically speaking, you can use any number of accidentals and occasionally it is appropriate to use double accidentals. Another thing to keep in mind is that a c sharp is NOT the same note as a d flat. They are only the same on a piano or other statically tuned instruments which have to use a single temperament to play all keys (there's probably a better ...


1

I'm just going to keep it really simple: The measure in question is to be played 'free' or 'fill'. You can do whatever feels right musically to you, then continue on as you were playing before.


1

In writing for the violin family, a small circle also means harmonic, which is produced by lightly touching the string enough to stop it vibrating but not enough to play the note. Sometimes the string is stopped lower down as well, in order to play a different range of harmonics.



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