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27

It is common to use notes that are not in the scale to add color. It's called chromaticism, from the ancient Greek word for color. Think how composers use a G# instead of a G in A minor, for example as a part of an E chord. A semitone creates more tension and the tendency of G# to resolve to (go to) A is more powerful. This is called a chromatic approach ...


22

To express the fact that 2 notes are sounding, you should use beam direction. It's as if one instrument is playing two parts simultaneously. See the picture, and note how each part gets its own "swimming lane" on the staff. Please also note that each bar on the staff that uses multiple parts should, in principle, make sure all timing for each part is ...


14

Fm/Ab stands for F minor with note Ab on bass. Generically, X/Y is Chord X with note Y as lowest note. This second chord could be read as Gb major with major seventh and added 9th. The slash after a chord alteration serves only as a separator to indicate every simultaneous alteration you should apply to the chord.


13

Yes, both piano music and recorder music are written with the same kind of music notation, using the same kinds of symbols. The pitch "A" on the piano and the same pitch "A" on the recorder are written with the same musical note in sheet music. I do not know, but I suspect that the problem your daughter is encountering is of a different nature: On the ...


11

The X's are sharp signs, which means this piece is in D. Note, an X can also mean a double sharp, but in this context (throughout the whole piece), it clearly refers to a sharp. The t.'s mean trill (this is confirmed by many recordings that I've listened to). The W's at the end of the line tell where the first note on the next line is. For example, the ...


11

The double-octave transposition notation is indeed used in many kinds of classical and contemporary music. (The piano is only as big as it is to begin with because composers kept pushing the boundaries.) Your idea is very close, but incorrect. The notation is actually 15ma or 15mb, because the number in question refers to the size of the interval. | 1 2 ...


11

In piano, the staffs usually signifies what hand plays what note where the lower staff would be your left hand and the upper staff would be your right hand. While the clefs are important, you may see the same two clefs on a grand staff. In Imagine you can see there are two bass clefs because the piano part is low. It is kind of an unwritten rule of thumb in ...


11

"Is the song key is C Major or A Minor?" This piece is in d dorian. "How to find out if it's C Major or A Minor?" There are no accidentals at the beginning of the staff which could apply to both C major or A minor. But apart from the diatonic scales, there are also modes, and this happens to be in d dorian mode. The only way to really tell what ...


11

It is a little hard to tell without seeing the music, but these are unlikely to be time-signatures and marcato markings. The "^" is probably a variable pedal mark, particularly if it is connected to the lines showing the pedal markings. This page shows how this is usually used, it More accurately indicates the precise use of the sustain pedal. The ...


10

First off 2 octaves above or below is a 15th because an octave is 7 letter named notes above a unison (P1) so to get the first octave you have 1 + 7 = 8. 7 more notes above that is the next octave so 8 + 7 = 15. However it is very rare because as you inferred, it is rare that a pianist will play that high up and also it is much easier to understand just the ...


10

On the assumption that if you added up the note values in the bar concerned, and they added up correctly WITHOUT the 'little notes', they will probably be grace notes. They have no value of their own, and are played sort of crushed in just before the main note that follows. You should not blow separately, but play the little note almost like it was a ...


9

This is tremolo notation. The beams indicate the speed of the tremolo. In the first bar, you should alternate between the D-F# chord and the A in 16th notes. In the second bar, you should alternate between the two sets of notes in 32nd notes technically, or "as fast as possible" if 32nds are infeasible.


9

It's a tremolo. There are two types of tremolos. One between two different notes like in your example above and a second with the bars going though the stem of the note. In your case, it is like a trill where you go back and forth pattern them in that patter as fast as you can for the duration. Here is the link I used to confirm the ...


9

Because it means "the end" in italian. Remember that a lot of terms in classical music are in italian: rallentando, staccato, legato, etc.


9

'Fine' pretty much means the end of a piece. In piece you used for your example the end is pretty obvious, but some pieces of music will end in the middle after a D.S. al Fine. In this example you can see the end of the piece is not where it would usually be. D.S. al Fine itself means go the Segno (the weird s with a line and two dots) and play to the ...


9

Yes. This is a pick-up bar, also known as an anacrusis. This melody starts on beat 4 and so this note could also be called an up-beat. That is why the first bar is incomplete. When this happens the last bar should have a complementary number of beats (in other words, the number of beats in the time signature minus the pick-up bar, 3 beats in this case). As ...


8

Usually this is notated with the comment "let ring" above or below the staff; optionally you can include a dashed line (similar to an 8va line) that indicates the span of music where it should be played this way. Here's a good example


8

The song "Wonderful Dream" was written by Melanie Thornton (1967-2001). She was an American singer who had commercial success in Europe while remaining unknown in the USA; most published information about her seems to be from Germany. I found a vocal solo and piano arrangement published by Hal Leonard. It appears to be out of print from Hal Leonard, but if ...


8

It's easy to think that a short sound just needs a blob on the music, but it's easier to count through the bars if each one has the prescribed number of beats. Imagine a snare on 2 and 4. If the rests on 1 and 3 weren't marked, you may well think that the first snare hit was on 1. Who knows? Whilst most drum sounds are short, cymbals can ring for a whole ...


8

As others pointed out, the piece you cite has a "pick up measure". Note though that it is not categorically ok for measures to not add up to the number of beats in the time signature, it can only happen at the first measure. There is another case where you can have an apparent mismatch in the number of notes and the time signature. This happens if the ...


7

There are no pedal markings, so the low G should be held with the left hand. That makes this note possibly more convenient to strike with a sforzando with the right hand depending on the reach of your fingers. The edition of the score that you've quoted indicates this (clearly, IMO). As nonpop observes, the original manuscript is different on this point, ...


7

It usually means it is the Trio section from a Minuet and Trio form. And, although the beginning of the score you link to is not marked "Minuet", it is in 3/4 and in the style of a Minuet. Originally the Minuet was a kind of dance, with Minuet also describing the associated 3/4 dance music form. Later it became common to combine this form with a Trio ...


7

Yes, Ludwig started the Blues. Only kidding, but that note may be considered as part of a secondary dominant. The dominant of A minor is E, maj. or min. The dominant of that is B, with a D#. That's one way to look at it. Another is to say one is not just restricted to writing the notes that are only found in the original key. That's actually quite ...


7

I'm afraid I have to take slight issue with @Bradd's otherwise solid answer. Actually, it's not a direct disagreement but a clarification: Professional guitar players usually can read sheet music, and most can also interpret sheet music by extrapolating parts of it as you describe. In a context of a pit orchestra (as in a musical show), studio recordings, or ...


6

I think in this context, "Piano Score" is a mistranslation. That would usually indicate an arrangement that has been condensed from an original instrumentation down to piano plus solo instrument or voice. Carl Witthoft's link contains the following image: The instrumentation is drums, guitars, and voice (and I would call this a "Band Score"). If the ...


6

Age: Here's the download page. This pdf is the first one (#20529), and there it says it's from ~1733. Locatelli was still alive then so it could very well be the first print. With the red, green, and blue markings I agree with the others; we have sharps, trills, and continuation indicators (showing the first note of the next line) The purple markings also ...


6

To elaborate on @keshlam's point about older music, there are all sorts of musics for which regular measure lengths are simply not part of the genre. Go back far enough and you'll find non-mensural music, such as Gregorian and pre-Gregorian chant. The music of the trobadors (11th-13th centuries) was not noted with rhythm, and there's an argument made that ...


6

Usually, the 0 on non-open string note indicates that this note should be played using flageolet. In your example, there are three occurences of flageolet: the d'' in the first bar and the a'' and the last d'' in the second. This is quite natural if you play this in the third position: with flageolet, you don't have to switch to the a string (or e string, ...


5

The letters Above mean the Implied/intended harmony. There are 2 possibilities I see here as to why an F and C7 are listed. If you are playing solo There are certain common chord progressions in music. The go-to example always seems to be I-V-I, and what this means is that the chords move from the first/tonic chord of the scale(in this case F, to the ...


5

One suggestion. I have no idea if this actually works, but if ever there were an occasion to try it, this is it: colored gel overlays for dyslexia. That article also suggests that highlighting (with a highlighter marker) can be helpful; I don't have dyslexia, but when I need to read a score where I'm reading an inner part of many, if I'm being all ...



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