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27

It is common to use notes that are not in the scale to add color. It's called chromaticism, from the ancient Greek word for color. Think how composers use a G# instead of a G in A minor, for example as a part of an E chord. A semitone creates more tension and the tendency of G# to resolve to (go to) A is more powerful. This is called a chromatic approach ...


22

To express the fact that 2 notes are sounding, you should use beam direction. It's as if one instrument is playing two parts simultaneously. See the picture, and note how each part gets its own "swimming lane" on the staff. Please also note that each bar on the staff that uses multiple parts should, in principle, make sure all timing for each part is ...


16

I believe the symbol is an Italian notation, referred to as 'Mordente' - although not always the mordent as we know it! It was commonly used 1710-1760, which fits the time period you specified. How to play it seems to vary according to who wrote it, but one of the most 'defined' examples was from Germiniani's 1748/51 ornament tables, where it was specified ...


14

Fm/Ab stands for F minor with note Ab on bass. Generically, X/Y is Chord X with note Y as lowest note. This second chord could be read as Gb major with major seventh and added 9th. The slash after a chord alteration serves only as a separator to indicate every simultaneous alteration you should apply to the chord.


13

First off 2 octaves above or below is a 15th because an octave is 7 letter named notes above a unison (P1) so to get the first octave you have 1 + 7 = 8. 7 more notes above that is the next octave so 8 + 7 = 15. However it is very rare because as you inferred, it is rare that a pianist will play that high up and also it is much easier to understand just the ...


13

Yes, both piano music and recorder music are written with the same kind of music notation, using the same kinds of symbols. The pitch "A" on the piano and the same pitch "A" on the recorder are written with the same musical note in sheet music. I do not know, but I suspect that the problem your daughter is encountering is of a different nature: On the ...


13

They refer to divisions (manuals) of the organ: Grt. for Great (French 'Grand Choeur', German 'Hauptwerk') and Sw. for Swell (French 'Grand Orgue', German 'Schwellwerk'). For English, American and German organs, in a two-manual configuration, the lower manual is the Great, and the top manual is the Swell. French organs usually have the Swell at the bottom. ...


12

Yes, that's a "play both notes". See http://musescore.org/node/14449 for a note on the standard from the US Music Publisher's Association.


11

The double-octave transposition notation is indeed used in many kinds of classical and contemporary music. (The piano is only as big as it is to begin with because composers kept pushing the boundaries.) Your idea is very close, but incorrect. The notation is actually 15ma or 15mb, because the number in question refers to the size of the interval. | 1 2 ...


11

In piano, the staffs usually signifies what hand plays what note where the lower staff would be your left hand and the upper staff would be your right hand. While the clefs are important, you may see the same two clefs on a grand staff. In Imagine you can see there are two bass clefs because the piano part is low. It is kind of an unwritten rule of thumb in ...


11

"Is the song key is C Major or A Minor?" This piece is in d dorian. "How to find out if it's C Major or A Minor?" There are no accidentals at the beginning of the staff which could apply to both C major or A minor. But apart from the diatonic scales, there are also modes, and this happens to be in d dorian mode. The only way to really tell what ...


11

It is a little hard to tell without seeing the music, but these are unlikely to be time-signatures and marcato markings. The "^" is probably a variable pedal mark, particularly if it is connected to the lines showing the pedal markings. This page shows how this is usually used, it More accurately indicates the precise use of the sustain pedal. The ...


10

Because it means "the end" in italian. Remember that a lot of terms in classical music are in italian: rallentando, staccato, legato, etc.


10

On the assumption that if you added up the note values in the bar concerned, and they added up correctly WITHOUT the 'little notes', they will probably be grace notes. They have no value of their own, and are played sort of crushed in just before the main note that follows. You should not blow separately, but play the little note almost like it was a ...


10

Several people advise MusicXML here but I don't see that making sense. That is an exchange format, not a format to write music in. In practice, MusicXML export/import works rather tepidly between different applications. I've seen "TuxGuitar" mentioned but the name would strongly suggest a focus on guitar I don't see in question or tags. LilyPond is a ...


9

Fine pretty much means the end of a piece. In piece you used for your example the end is pretty obvious, but some pieces of music will end in the middle after a D.S. al Fine. In this example you can see the end of the piece is not where it would usually be. D.S. al Fine itself means go the Segno and play to the Fine. The Fine is used to say where the ...


9

Yes. This is a pick-up bar, also known as an anacrusis. This melody starts on beat 4 and so this note could also be called an up-beat. That is why the first bar is incomplete. When this happens the last bar should have a complementary number of beats (in other words, the number of beats in the time signature minus the pick-up bar, 3 beats in this case). As ...


8

It's easy to think that a short sound just needs a blob on the music, but it's easier to count through the bars if each one has the prescribed number of beats. Imagine a snare on 2 and 4. If the rests on 1 and 3 weren't marked, you may well think that the first snare hit was on 1. Who knows? Whilst most drum sounds are short, cymbals can ring for a whole ...


8

As others pointed out, the piece you cite has a "pick up measure". Note though that it is not categorically ok for measures to not add up to the number of beats in the time signature, it can only happen at the first measure. There is another case where you can have an apparent mismatch in the number of notes and the time signature. This happens if the ...


8

Yes, you are, according to these dots !!! However, they're not exactly right, in that the part of the piece after the two note pick-up is in A major, but the repeat is still in A minor.The music is not really written well. You probably realised that the sharps relate to the next bit, and they should be in the next bar after the repeat, or possibly bracketed ...


8

Just to add to @MattL's answer... Great and Swell are usually assigned to different manuals. (Although they can be linked by couplers.) The Great manual will usually be assigned to principal stops, or as this page describes it, the Great manual usually: contains the meat and potatoes of the organ: the principal chorus. The Swell manual will be linked ...


7

It usually means it is the Trio section from a Minuet and Trio form. And, although the beginning of the score you link to is not marked "Minuet", it is in 3/4 and in the style of a Minuet. Originally the Minuet was a kind of dance, with Minuet also describing the associated 3/4 dance music form. Later it became common to combine this form with a Trio ...


7

Yes, Ludwig started the Blues. Only kidding, but that note may be considered as part of a secondary dominant. The dominant of A minor is E, maj. or min. The dominant of that is B, with a D#. That's one way to look at it. Another is to say one is not just restricted to writing the notes that are only found in the original key. That's actually quite ...


7

I'm afraid I have to take slight issue with @Bradd's otherwise solid answer. Actually, it's not a direct disagreement but a clarification: Professional guitar players usually can read sheet music, and most can also interpret sheet music by extrapolating parts of it as you describe. In a context of a pit orchestra (as in a musical show), studio recordings, or ...


6

To elaborate on @keshlam's point about older music, there are all sorts of musics for which regular measure lengths are simply not part of the genre. Go back far enough and you'll find non-mensural music, such as Gregorian and pre-Gregorian chant. The music of the trobadors (11th-13th centuries) was not noted with rhythm, and there's an argument made that ...


6

It's the form of the piece. As you can see both sections with the A above them have very similar rhythmic patterns and the sections that have A' have different rhythmic patterns then that of A. So the piece has a form of AA'AA'.


6

Usually, the 0 on non-open string note indicates that this note should be played using flageolet. In your example, there are three occurences of flageolet: the d'' in the first bar and the a'' and the last d'' in the second. This is quite natural if you play this in the third position: with flageolet, you don't have to switch to the a string (or e string, ...


6

The format of choice is MusicXML, which is understood by nearly every program. My favorite program is lilypond which creates really nice scores, is free and multi-plattform but being a music programming language without any GUI, fails in respect to ease-of-use. There are some frontends for it, as can be seen here, but I have no experience with them.


6

MusicXML seems to be what you’re looking for here. It is imported and exported by many softwares, including Sibelius, Finale and MuseScore (which is free software). It is, however, more of an exchange format. I’m not sure any of these software can work directly on the format, and some information might be lost when importing or exporting.


6

My sense (after writing parsers for ABC, MusicXML, Cappella, Noteworthy, and about 6 other formats; and output to Lilypond, etc.) is the limitations of ABC, the format, cannot be completely separated from the limitations of ABC parsers. As both Kevin and Chris noted above, the ABC format has the capacity to encode much of the complexity of MusicXML and ...



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