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13

There are physical and psychoacoustics reasons behind it. A vibrating string held by its two extremities can only vibrate at certain frequencies (cycles per second, expressed in Hertz, i.e. 1/second), which relates to the characteristics of the string (e.g. its weight per unit of length, its flexibility) and how it is used (e.g. the vibrating length — which ...


10

I would say yes, and yes. You've explained the problem pretty clearly, and explained its consequence. Choirs frequently find that they sing everything internally, consistently in-tune throughout a piece, but then at the end of the piece, they discover that they are no longer in tune with the reference pitches upon which they started the piece. The frame of ...


9

Schoenberg is talking about the difference between just intonation (which he refers to as "natural semi-tones") and 12-tone equal temperament (which he refers to as "tempered" semi-tones). This is a complicated subject. You can find several long posts about this subject on this site, or you can find a lot of references elsewhere on the Internet. The gist of ...


8

I wish to elaborate on @Tim's answer, which is correct. Actually, it was easier to discern the "color" before the modern system of 12-tone equal temperament for piano tuning. In Chopin's time and before, pianos and other keyboard instruments were tuned to one of many different systems of temperament, some of which sounded quite different in certain keys, ...


7

Standard tuning for solo violin in classical music is just intonation. Tune the A string and, from there, tune the other strings with just-intonated perfect fifths. Some times, as a compromise you may need to tune the violin temperate, for example when you need to play many open strings in duo/ensemble with a instrument not capable of just-intonation. ...


6

My answer is no, it isn't really possible to use a fingering technique to play an A440 recorder at A415. No professional would even try; they would instead, as Wheat noted, have a real A415 instrument or, if extremely confident and well rehearsed, transpose on-the-fly down a half-step. One can indeed bend most notes up or down quite a bit using half-holes, ...


5

Probably before temperate tuning, where each note is the same distance from the next, it would have been possible to discern - maybe because an instrument could sound in tune in one key, but not in a different key ! Please look at Wheat's answer for enlightenment on tuning. Someone who has absolute ('perfect') pitch will be able to tell, because they ...


4

As per the app you were asking, Pythagorean is the temperament you're looking for. The perfect fifth is the 2:3 frequency ratio (and small rational number frequency ratios are required for the sympathetic vibrations to work). So if your A string is 440 Hz, the tuning is as follows: E 660Hz A 440Hz D 293.33Hz G 195.56Hz If you tune by ear from A, your ...


3

I do not play recorder, or harpsichord, but I have friends who do, as I'm a fan of Baroque music. Let me tell you what I do know. A=440 and A=415 are exactly one half-step or 100 cents apart (relative to 12-tone equal temperament). I don't have a definitive answer, but the problem is that neither the recorder nor the harpsichord are (typically) tuned in ...


3

You are working with a violin. It has four strings tuned in perfect fifths. Intonation on a violin, which has no frets, is something that you produce with your fingers, not with an electronic measuring device like your tuner. You can produce any kind of intonation or temperament on a violin that you can train your ears and fingers to recognize. You are not ...


2

A good reason for an orchestra to be slightly sharp is that it will produce a different sound. Not because there is anything special about the frequency 442, but simply because listeners are used to hearing concert pitch everywhere. Although most people do not have absolute pitch in that they can tell that a given orchestra is sharp by a few cents, they can ...


1

You cannot tell which configuration of sharps or flats are in a given key that is being played, when the modern equal temperament is used. The spacing between all the 12 semitones is identical, and so keys do not have their own color (beyond whatever color is imparted to them by their absolute tuning). When we modulate from, say, C to C#, the frequencies of ...


1

Clarinetists really suffer when the orchestra tunes high. Once the barrel is all the way in, the only way to increase the pitch further is with the lip. Even if a short barrel is to hand, all the woodwinds are set up to be in tune at one length and any variation from that also requires the players to constantly adjust their pitch - if you pitch higher, the ...


1

http://www.TallKite.com/alt-tuner.html Alt-tuner is a midi effect for your DAW, very powerful. You can sweep the whole spectrum of meantone (1/3 comma, 2/7 comma, 1/4 comma, 1/5 comma, 1/11 comma = 12-ET, 0 comma = pythagorean) and you can even do this with a foot pedal as you are playing, via midi learn. It also does well-temperament, any kind. It does ...



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