New answers tagged terminology
As pointed out in a comment by Matthew Read, this is for sure a translation error. The author as well as the translator are both Spanish speakers (from Argentina and Mexico, respectively). Subtonic is of course correct, but sensitive is a mistranslation from the Spanish sensible for leading tone.
As pointed out by Killian Forth, "parody", in the original musicological sense, should cover this -- initially musical parody was merely the resuse of musical content in another work, and didn't have the comical connotations that it does today. The reason why the lyrics can be exchanged is because the two songs have the same (poetic) metre. There are many ...
More specifically it is n upright thumbless rasguedo. Popular in flamenco music.
The beat exists without any notes being played. Imagine the bandleader saying "and ah one, and ah two and ah one two three four" - the next "one" is the downbeat marking (nominally) the beginning of the piece. Time passes, the pulse continues, but there need not be any notes "placed" or "put" on any of those "beats." I think you need an understanding of time ...
Now I know what values notes can have and what they look like and all that, but what I don't get is how you can place somthing... on them? The author is saying "place a sound every X": as in every quarter, or every eight, or every sixteenth. Here are some examples of one measure in 4/4. The grid is divided in sixteenths. Every quarter: Placed on ...
Tremolo. Yes, it's also the name for a wangy bar that was coined erroneously by a certain Mr. Fender. Can be performed using a pick, or 2,3 or 4 fingers.
'Note' is a horribly overloaded term, since it can also be used to include duration. What you're calling 'note class', I've seen referred to as tonal pitch class to distinguish it from regular pitch class, as I mention (with references) in my answer here: General procedure for determining the name of an interval given a major key / diatonic collection
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