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18

Questions like this cause endless debate among scholars. The basic fact is that sheet music from the Baroque era tends to have a great deal less detail and specificity about interpretive matters than sheet music written in later eras. Bowing directions for strings are never given; the only dynamic markings used are often just "p" and "f", and there are no ...


13

I wish I could point you to some scientific studies; I cannot. But I can speak on the basis of a lifetime of my being a semi-professional traditional choral singer and soloist who has a university music school degree in singing. I have extensive experience with a cappella choral singing, with singing accompanied by piano and organ and orchestra, and even ...


12

No. A key* is not just a set of notes, it tells you the tonal center** of a piece and the expected harmony and melody of the piece. If that was the case we wouldn't even distinguish between major and minor as they have the same set of notes as do all 7 modes of the diatonic scale. How you use your harmony and melody will define the key and tonal center by ...


11

Baroque music was all about expressiveness, and the rhythm was not necessarily meant to be held as strictly as the Renaissance tactus. Wheat Williams has mentioned historically informed performance, and as he says, these things are debated academically. But there is some good indication that Baroque composers did think of slowing down at the end of pieces. ...


9

Wheat Williams covered the basics of historically-informed-performance quite well. I want to add that unmeasured preludes (not uncommon in Baroque music) indicate that Baroque composers did have a concept of give-and-take in regards to tempo. (You can look at examples of preludes here or here to see what the music looked like.) So, while the purists may ...


8

To amplify Dom's reply, it is indeed a D♯. What is going on here is that Mozart is using an augmented sixth chord (specifically the French sixth) that is being used as dominant preparation. Normally how a French sixth works is that the upper notes form V7 of V (with a missing fifth), while the bass falls a half step from ♭6 to 5. It is a variant of the ...


8

It's a D# because it's functioning as a D#. In the three measures you can see the line goes E -> D# -> E. It's acting much more leading tone like than 7th like as if it were truly an F7 the next note would either be the same or resolve down. The fact the harmony could be interpreted as an F7 is kind of a moot point as the next measure lands squarely on Am ...


6

The minor intervals are not minor because they are found in the minor scale and the same goes for major intervals. The intervals are concepts based on the distance between two notes based on letter name and absolute distance in semitones. It should also be noted that the term major and minor is used a lot in music and when applied to interval major means ...


6

The notation builds up by intervals from the bass in close position (although you don't need to realise it in close position). For sevenths, you don't need all three intervals to specify: typically just the two most characteristic are used. In this case, you have an inversion of a minor seventh chord on ii that has a fifth and sixth from the bass in close ...


6

Yes it stays in the same key. There is a very specific way to notate a key change on sheet music and in this case if it were changing to the key of C major/A minor you would see all the places there would be flats have naturals in their place. You can even see in the chord symbol that the D notes are still flat in that measure.


6

These are usually referred to as "A-shape" barre chords -- it's the same note interval arrangement as when playing an open A chord, albeit with muting the high-e string. When you use the "double bar" technique there is no easy way to get a chord tone on the 1st string so you just mute it instead. Some people fret the fourth,third and second strings with ...


6

Every symphony ever written has more than one key -- usually several different keys. A symphony may have the name of a certain key in its title, but this only refers to the main key that occurs throughout its structure. Each symphony will have many changes to different keys. Each symphony will tend to be unique in how it uses multiple keys. Different ...


6

It's not clear what your goals and requirements are for this information system -- and that has a huge bearing on the answer. If, for example, your software is trying to analyze the harmony inside of a single piece, then yes, symphonies definitely will modulate (change keys) all over the place, as Wheat Williams describes in his excellent answer. And this ...


5

"Historically informed" practitioners will tell you all kinds of stuff overgeneralized from a narrow modern point of view. For example, that dynamics in keyboards are a modern invention. Clavichords were perfectly capable of nuanced dynamic play, and larger instruments like harpsichords had several manuals and registration possibilities in order to allow ...


5

Yes they are all the same chord progression. When just given the Roman numeral analysis or chord symbols of the progression, the exact voicings do not matter nor does what octave you play them in. However it should be noted that what voicings you use, what octave you play in, and how much you move from one chord to another affect how what you play sounds. ...


4

No. My college music theory professor always explained it this way: Key only means tonal center. If you say it's in the key of C, then you have to specify whether the mode is C major, C minor, or some other mode. He would insist that there is no such thing as the "key of C major". The correct way to say that is this: the key is C, and the mode is major. So ...


4

For a temporary change of clef, there is no need. However, if the 'left hand' continues to use the bass clef , say, in the next line, it will revert to the proper key sig., with the four flats (in this case) in the appropriate places for the bass clef, which obviously will be signed.


4

The presumption is that a pitched sound consists of partials that have frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency, so that a note with fundamental frequency f (e.g. 100Hz) has partials at f, 2f, 3f (100, 200, 300 Hz) and so on - or in terms of ratios, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and so on. It's these ratios that the deviation is from in an ...


4

The symbol is Roman numeral analysis with figured bass which is more than enough information to build the specific chord. It is telling you that the harmony at that point is a minor 7th (from the lower case of the roman numeral & the figured bass) built on the second scale degree (from the value of the Roman numeral) of Gb major (the note before the ...


4

There is no correct answer as to which chord you "should" play because you can use whichever chord you think sounds best in a given situation. What you're describing is essentially changing the voicing or the way the chord sounds without changing the chord. There are many, many ways to play the same chord but each one has its own unique sound. Here are just ...


4

These are the 7 chords formed using the notes from the D major scale (D, E, F#, G, A, B, C#). So, yes, the answer is that the progression is in D major


3

I'm pretty sure I found the lesson that you cite from the site in your question. While the content isn't as misguided as initially stated from your question, it is very confusing and uses a lot of nonstandard terms to talk about modes like Parent Major Scale (PMS) and and uses the term "tonal center" wrong. Purge the lesson from your mind and I'll explain ...


3

If I'm not mistaken, both of the books have some stuff in common, but the theory is book is focusing solely on theory (duh), whereas the piano book focuses on the piano. The theory book has some stuff about the piano and vice versa, but both have stuff the other book doesn't. I would suggest that if you have the money (they cost around 30-40$ on Amazon), you ...


3

C/B could be called an Eminor chord with a minor 6th in second inversion; it's the same thing. It really depends on where you want to go with harmony. Both are valid and both are commonly used, so I cannot decide for sure which one to choose. Both C - C/B - Am7 and Am7/C, Am7/B, Am7 seem correct in a chord progression. I would suggest to look at the melody ...


2

The article or book you are asking about is talking about pianos because of the stiffness of the strings and how that makes the piano behave different from how idealized physics says it should behave. The partials of notes created by most musical instruments have integer ratios to the fundamental frequency of the note. For instance, the third partial of a ...


2

One of the other answers gives a mixture of traditional ornaments like trill and mordent along with "passing tones." It's a nice list, but "passing tones" are only one type of "non-chord tone" (NCT) and I think a fuller list of NCT's should be given: Passing Tones Neighbor Note Suspension Anticipation Appoggiatura Escape tone Cambiata (or changing tones) ...


2

To me, "mode" is just a word we use instead of "scale" for certain scales. From that point of view, you might as well be asking me if "A minor actually belongs to the key of C major". To me a key is both a scale and a tonal center. A different tonal center means a different key. When you start a piece in A minor and modulate up to C major, you are now ...


2

Yes the key signature remains the same. Piano music may have several instances where both hands play high and really there is no reason to reiterate the key signature when the change of clef is just to not use unruly ledger lines.


2

No a chord does not come with its own key change. What it does come with is its own set of notes that will define the chord regardless of what key you are in. A Bb7 will always be spelled Bb-D-F-Ab. Assuming those naturals are suppose to be there they could be curtosy accidentals there to remind you the A is natural even though the overall harmony at that ...


2

Whether you move up or down, the progression will sound the same. Which way you choose purely depends on the song. There are times were the composer (or some other musician) will specifically ask you to move a certain way; if not, try both of the ways yourself and see what fits best. If the melody moves up, it might sound nice to move along with it. It will ...



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