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12

You retain the accidental. In this case, it is pretty unambiguous since the lead note is immediately preceding the note (baroque trills would even start with the upper note). If there is more of a distance to the preceding use of a changed pitch, one would lean towards adding a reminder accidental to the trill.


11

You could consider as a scale derived from the F harmonic major scale as the F harmonic major scale contains the notes: F G A Bb C Db E F You can view this scales as just a major scale with a lowered 6th and this type of scale comes up in the Lydian Chromatic Concept.


8

This is called Transposition. For instance, if you are in C major and have this melody: C-F-E-G-C and you move to E major scale, the melody would be: E-A-G#-B-E. You have to keep the intervals the same (A perfect fourth remains a perfect fourth etc), but the notes change.


7

As pointed out by Dom, it is indeed the second mode of the (F) harmonic major scale. I would just like to add that this scale is often referred to as Dorian b5. Viewing this scale as a Dorian scale with one altered note makes it easy to remember its structure and to come up with appropriate fingerings.


7

These are mensural time signatures. Before I explain their general meaning, I would just note that these signatures should not be used without extensive explanation unless you're notating specifically for an early-music group. They are not often taught outside of grad school History of Theory type courses. Mensural music was composed in Europe during ...


6

The only other exception I can think of is something like rubato grace notes that have no count. Here's an example from Chopin's Nocturnes, Op. 27: As for standard music notation, no other notable exceptions really come to mind.


5

Feel works, and I believe you can also say style or groove. Rephrasing: Groove. Wikipedia: Groove is the sense of propulsive rhythmic "feel" or sense of "swing" created by the interaction of the music played by a band's rhythm section (drums, electric bass or double bass, guitar, and keyboards). Feel and style also work but aren't as specific.


5

It is more dependent on how one perceives a chord. Assuming a chord = a triad, then, yes, it's quite possible to use melody notes that don't actually include those of that chord. The reason some extra notes will work is because they imply a subtly different chord. One which actually could/should be the one played under the melody. 'Laura' is an example. The ...


5

Yes you are correct, I'll just put it in simpler terms. The major scale is both diatonic and heptatonic. Heptatonic just means that there are 7 notes per octave in the scale. The diatonic scales just a name for the specific name for scales that contain a specific whole step, half step pattern TTSTTTS in some why, shape, or form. All the 7 natural ...


5

A common place for this to occur is IV to iv, often then returning to I, which makes (in your F key) the Db a semitone from C, and Bb a semitone from A, both found in the F chord. The F, of course, remains static. It's the same sort of semitone pull that makes V7 work so well as a dominant, to I. 'Major to minor' is one way to describe it. Ironically, in ...


4

All of them. Here's the simple reason why. We use different systems to name, describe, and label scales. Let's just look at the C major scale to start. The C major scale can also be referred to as the C Ionian mode when thinking in modal contexts, but there are more ways to describe the scale then just that. You can describe a scale by pattern i.e. the C ...


4

Feel is what's typically used then talking about straight vs swing. I've also seen the terms rhythm used to talk about straight vs swing. You could use either when talking about it as these are the typical terms used to compare and contrast them.


4

Historically these modes arose as ways of describing and categorizing music that already existed. For medieval liturgical song, or Gregorian chant, the system of modes made it easier to match antiphon chants with a psalm tone. The right psalm tone would mean that at the end of the psalm it was easy to go back and sing the antiphon again. The modes describe ...


4

When your editor suggests calling it a "prelude", you might be overdoing it. As a rule of thumb, it has to fit in a pickup truck. Joking aside, the only hard limit is what your editor is willing to accept. Usually the mark of an anacrusis is that it fits with the beat: for a 3/4 beat, that puts the plausible limit at something like 2/2 when starting with ...


4

The situation here is that time signature and the bar lines don't correspond to the "beat" of the music. We don't know why Beethoven notated the piece in 3/4 time, but rhythmically there is one beat per bar not three, and the first bar line corresponds to a weak beat not a strong one. So you are correct that, with Beethoven's notation, the anacrusis is four ...


4

The chord basic progression I - VI - IV - II - V - I has been around almost as long as tonal music. Pop song writers have used it hundreds of times, and so did Mozart. In the key of F, that is F - Dm - Bb - Gm - C - F. Add a few 7ths if you want, of course. But you can precede almost any chord with its "secondary dominant". The dominant of Dm is A, so F - ...


4

Absolutely! Shepard-Risset tones sound as if they are continuously rising or falling; this is done by continously changing the overtone content of the sounds such that when the central perceived pitch has gone up or down an octave, the same tone an octave below (for ascending) or above (for descending)has faded in, and the same tone an octave above has faded ...


3

Direction. Tonal context. When you introduce a chromatic note, you are usually adding a tendency tone, which will imply movement either upwards or downwards, depending on where the note is being introduced. The tendency can imply movement by whole tone or semitone. (Generally a chromatic note that moves away by a whole tone moves into a chromatic leading ...


3

If I understand your question correctly, the answer is: "prolation". There are two concepts with rhythm, meter - the number of beats in a measure and prolation - the number of subdivisions of the meter. Straight 8's are duple meter, duple prolation and Swing 8's are duple meter triple prolation. Due to the church origins of these terms, where 3 was divine - ...


3

FWIW: to me, a jazzy accompaniment like that rather ruins such a minimalistic spiritual as Amazing Grace. I would in fact prefer a bordun G! But to answer why chord changes make sense – often there's a simple reason: some parts of the melody are in dissonance with the tonic. In Amazing Grace that's actually not the case, but in many pieces changing ...


3

You will find that melodies that are "pleasingly consistent to genre" tend to also follow the "rules" of composition. The rules are empirically derived: meaning that they were derived from common practice, instead of common practice being derived from the rules. It is a very good practise to come up with a pleasing melody, then transcribe it, and review ...


3

The bass is an inherently melodic instrument that is unique in that it provides the core definition of both the harmony AND the rhythm. In constructing lines, it's important to remember that the folks above you in the frequency scale will be depending on you to be underneath them, supporting them. Nothing more disconcerting as a singer or rhythm player to ...


3

It's just a temporary modulation. In jazz and older pop music, this shows up frequently in a progression called "downstep modulation", where you have sequential iim-V7-Is a whole step lower, so for example: Am7-D7-GMaj7 Gmin7-C7-FMaj7, Fm7 ...


3

This progression immediately reminds me of Creep by Radiohead, though it is in C major, not F major. While there is no natural key containing F major and A major, these two chords together are very common in most genres, but especially in rock, which loves minor to major substitutions. D minor is the relative minor of F major, and while the key of D minor ...


3

As others have stated there is a temporary modulation. But the particular change you are referring to (IV to iv) actually comes from the Harmonic Major Scale. The scale was named by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. For instance a C harmonic major scale consists of the notes C D E F G Ab B (C). Contrary to the usual (ionian) major scale: C D E F G A B. Some good ...


3

Communicating in a language that is not your own can be very frustrating! The answer is yes, and they are called combination tones Some examples here when certain pitches are tuned to just intonation (simple integer rations) they can interact and produce other simple ratio notes, ending up with chords that sound like they have more notes in than you are ...


3

A time signature does not affect the duration of any tuple. For example: An 8th note triplet will always take up 1/3 of a quarter note A 16th note triplet will always take up 1/3 of an 8th note A 32nd note triplet will always take up 1/3 of a 16th note An 8th note duplet will always take up 1/2 of a dotted quarter note A 16th note duplet will always take ...


2

Well if you're only setting yourself 2 years to learn then I wouldn't bother mastering any exotic scales so I'd just stick with the following scales: major natural minor minor pentatonic major pentatonic blues For theory: learn about chord building learn about chord progressions (including cadences) and what notes sound good over a particular chord in ...


2

Whenever enharmonic equivalence comes up and a note can have multiple names, you need to look at the context the note is in. There's a lot to look at and depending on what kind of harmony you are going for and what's going on. Let's stay in C for simplicity. The augmented C chord would be one scenario where you would use G# over Ab because the G# is part ...


2

A fifth is the smallest non-octave consonant interval, with a frequency ratio of 3:2. If you start stacking pure fifths, the first result reasonably close to stacked octaves (2:1) is 12 fifths, which turns out to be 531441:4096 as opposed to 128:1 for 7 octaves. That's as close as you can get for a reasonable number of notes per octave. So if you are ...



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