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20

There is a rather more fundamental, physical reason for this than so far mentioned: the bass fills not only the bass frequency range, but its harmonics actually reach well into the midrange where all other voices have their fundamentals! In fact, since the bass has typically the strongest amplitude1 of all tuned instruments (save perhaps trumpets, lead ...


16

A fugue is one of the most polyphonic musical pieces you can write. In a typical fugue there are 3 or 4 voices in play that are each treated independent melodies. While this is going on, you have to not only have to keep all the rules of counterpoint in mind for each voice and make sure the harmony always make sense, but you have a structure to keep in mind ...


11

This system is the result of the specific historical evolution of Western music notation. The five-line staff was not the first try at writing down the pitches being used in European music. The first systems were just mnemonic, consisting of neumes (squiggles, basically) drawn above the words of a religious text, much like the cantillation symbols that ...


10

Your question is very vague, but I'll try to answer it to you anyway. You are actually pointing at three different skills: Songwriting Composition Musical Knowledge I'll explain to you what these skills are and how to learn them. Songwriting Have you ever seen a dude with a guitar playing love-songs in a corner surrounded by pretty girls? Yeah, ...


10

It sounds like she may have been talking about the Tristan Chord, a famous chord from the opening of Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde. While it can be enharmonically written as a half-diminished 7th chord (F-A♭-C♭-E♭), it does not resolve in the way a half-diminished 7th chord would, nor is it written as a half-diminished 7th chord. For this ...


8

The song could be on G# major; It would be easier to say it's in Ab major scale. These two are the same scale and they are called Enharmonic scales. (I'm using Ab because it is more common and easier to understand). Here is how: Ab (G#) -> 1st chord of your scale. Ebm (D#m) -> 4th of the minor scale with the same name (Ab or G# minor) -- you are allowed to ...


8

You can't tell for certain either which key this is in, or which chords would appear above these bass notes, but for different reasons... This short excerpt of music has only four pitches: E, D, F# and G - these notes are found in the scales of several keys: G Major and its relative minor E Minor (natural minor) have these notes: E, F#, G, A, B, C, D D ...


8

You're not breaking any unwritten rules here. It is in fact pretty common to use the 5th of the chord leading up to the root a fourth higher in the bass. However, in your bassline the question is if you really mean an A minor chord in the last bar. If you hear an A minor chord over both bars in the bottom line then - by definition - that's the way it is ...


7

I've seen ppp, pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, fff used commonly giving you 8 levels. ffff and pppp seem pretty rare. There's also no standard for EXACTLY how loud each of these are. Eh, it's the arts. Whattayagonnado ?


6

A single bassline can be harmonized in a number of different ways. Assuming you are working only with diatonic triads (three note chords that require no accidentals), you'll typically have three options for your harmony for each note. In the key of G major, those options look like this: G: I, vi6, IV64 A: ii, vii°6, V64 B: iii, I6, vi64 C: IV, ii6, ...


6

Typically, in traditional classical music, non-harmonic tones like suspensions are not indicated in the Roman numeral analysis. You would simply notate the numeral and inversion for the chord to which you are resolving. Here's an example: In jazz and pop music, on the other hand, you may find the chord analyzed as IVsus or IVsus4, for instance. This is ...


6

At one point in time (mainly the Baroque period,) a common way to notate a keyboard part was to simply write the bass part and then notate with numbers what intervals above the bass note were needed to complete the chord. This is called figured bass. So, for instance, if you wanted to indicated a root position 7th chord, you would write 3,5,7 below the ...


6

There are many different ways to approach playing bass and depending on what style you are trying to go for it may be all you need to fill the sound. I'll explain a few simple styles and techniques that can spice up a bass line. Octaves Rather simple, but effective. Your still playing only the root note, but changing the octave is a very simple and ...


5

Casey Rule gave a fine answer, I just want to point out a few things about harmonizing in general and you should be aware of while trying to harmonize a bass line. iii chords are quite rare in a major key, in fact in all my classical theory studies I don't remember analyzing anything that used any type of iii chord in a major key. While vii° is a viable ...


5

If I'm not mistaken, the way to symbolize this is: IVsus or IVsus4 (or IVsus4). (Usually, when you see a IVsus chord, it refers to a sus4 chord, but not everyone writes it this way).


5

How you describe the harmony (chords) at a point such as the beginning of bar 4, depends upon what any chord symbols are going to be used for. There are in fact several ways to notate the passage you're describing. (For this answer I'm assuming that you do indeed want an Am chord sounding with all the bass notes in bars 3-4). Here are some options: if you ...


4

I'm not 100% sure what your goals are since I see a conflict between using the tone net, which just goes off in all directions with more and more sharps/flats, and your goal of limiting/manipulating the number of sharps and flats. In conventional music the key signatures are (usually) selected so as to avoid double-flats/sharps and the use of chromatic ...


4

In the history of western music, the 7 notes came first. The twelve arise from adding the necessary notes to play the 7-note scale starting on any note of the 7-note scale. In the key of C major, no sharps or flats are needed. C D E F G A B C When you modulate a fourth to F, you need to add the soft B or B♭. F G A B♭ C D E F And for each ...


4

Giovanni Gabrielli started it all with just two: piano and forte. Before long, there were also pp (pianissimo, "softest") and ff (fortissimo, "loudest"). Beethoven used fff if I recall correctly, but few composers used more than 2 of each. I know that Tchaikovsky's sixth symphony has ffffff and ppppppp. (Most conductors substitute a bass clarinet for ...


4

There is no standard way by which musicians create music to represent mathematical patterns, equations, or other entities. Whenever someone does undertake a project like the ones you found, what they do is create a custom, non-standard mapping between mathematical objects and musical objects or parameters. For example, I once wrote a very simple song to ...


4

Writing a fugue is a mixture of imagination, organization, and mastery of your tools. If you are making a drawing, keeping track of the perspective, the objects you want to appear, and just what object will obscur what other object can be done using ruler and overpainting/erasing as you go. How much time spend masters erasing obscured objects? Fugue ...


4

There are many ways to deviate from the pattern. In this example a very common pattern emigres from the circle of 5ths. The chords don't belong to any one key, but rather come from multiple keys. You start with a C and go to G (I to V in the key of C), then you go from a G to a D(I to V in the key of G), then you go from a D to a A(I to V in the key of D), ...


4

It's figured bass. The numbers correspond to the interval between the bass note and the notes above the bass. In root position you have the intervals 3, 5, and 7 above the bass. 5 and 3 are just standard triad intervals so the it is simplified to V7 In first inversion you have the intervals 3, 5, and 6 above the bass. We have just a 6 to denote a triad in ...


4

The first suggestion I would make is learn some music theory. While not necessary, music theory can help make sense of what your doing. For example, lets say there is a song that rotates through a very basic I-V-vi-IV progression. Music theory will help you understand not only how the notes of each chord relate to each other but also allow you know what ...


3

This is not a rigorous, scholarly answer, but a useful one: There is a simple, general principle in writing Western music that has been mentioned by many people over the centuries. It basically says that a piece of music has two important components: the melody up top, and the bass line down low. The chords are determined by filling in the spaces between the ...


3

I would actually expect that having more levels simply means that you're expected to recognize the relative differences between different segments of the piece being played, thus allowing you to play the song more closely to how the original composer intended. Example: if you had pp, mp, ff and fffff you would probably play those parts somewhat differently ...


3

Music and maths are indeed closely related (there are innumerable books on this topic), but your question appears to put cart before horse. Musical notation is a product of underlying mathematical models, western musical notation just one of many. Tastes do differ, sometimes wildly. :-) Nevertheless, at a fine grain there are indeed a multitude of formulas ...


3

In my music theory class in college, a suspended chord was written with its resolution, e.g. I⁴⁻³. We didn't get to the point of unresolved suspended chords, as used in jazz.


3

Personally, I find augmented chords (like c e g#) much worse to resolve than diminished chords: diminished chords reduce to a seventh chord by lowering any chord note by a semitone and resolve obviously from there. One can often actually use them functionally instead of a seventh chord in the first place. Augmented chords don't work in that manner. If you ...


2

There is no limit, but for any normal performance pp to ff would be all you need. A p itself means quiet and an f itself means loud. When you add another p or f to each it technically adds "very" in front of each. Examples: pp - very soft ff - very loud ppp - very, very soft fff - very, very loud pppp - very, very, very soft ffff - very, very, very loud ...



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