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14

A fugue is one of the most polyphonic musical pieces you can write. In a typical fugue there are 3 or 4 voices in play that are each treated independent melodies. While this is going on, you have to not only have to keep all the rules of counterpoint in mind for each voice and make sure the harmony always make sense, but you have a structure to keep in mind ...


11

This system is the result of the specific historical evolution of Western music notation. The five-line staff was not the first try at writing down the pitches being used in European music. The first systems were just mnemonic, consisting of neumes (squiggles, basically) drawn above the words of a religious text, much like the cantillation symbols that ...


5

I've seen ppp, pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, fff used commonly giving you 8 levels. ffff and pppp seem pretty rare. There's also no standard for EXACTLY how loud each of these are. Eh, it's the arts. Whattayagonnado ?


4

In the history of western music, the 7 notes came first. The twelve arise from adding the necessary notes to play the 7-note scale starting on any note of the 7-note scale. In the key of C major, no sharps or flats are needed. C D E F G A B C When you modulate a fourth to F, you need to add the soft B or B♭. F G A B♭ C D E F And for each ...


4

Giovanni Gabrielli started it all with just two: piano and forte. Before long, there were also pp (pianissimo, "softest") and ff (fortissimo, "loudest"). Beethoven used fff if I recall correctly, but few composers used more than 2 of each. I know that Tchaikovsky's sixth symphony has ffffff and ppppppp. (Most conductors substitute a bass clarinet for ...


3

A single bassline can be harmonized in a number of different ways. Assuming you are working only with diatonic triads (three note chords that require no accidentals), you'll typically have three options for your harmony for each note. In the key of G major, those options look like this: G: I, vi6, IV64 A: ii, viiĀ°6, V64 B: iii, I6, vi64 C: IV, ii6, ...


3

Writing a fugue is a mixture of imagination, organization, and mastery of your tools. If you are making a drawing, keeping track of the perspective, the objects you want to appear, and just what object will obscur what other object can be done using ruler and overpainting/erasing as you go. How much time spend masters erasing obscured objects? Fugue ...


3

There is no limit, but for any normal performance pp to ff would be all you need. A p itself means quiet and an f itself means loud. When you add another p or f to each it technically adds "very" in front of each. Examples: pp - very soft ff - very loud ppp - very, very soft fff - very, very loud pppp - very, very, very soft ffff - very, very, very loud ...


2

Specific to performance, swing is a type of timing which some define as dividing each beat in to three pieces and then playing the first and third part of that division. However many would fault this definition, claiming that swing is a "feel" that is not precisely divided into three, or four, or two, but some vaguely specific timing where the beat is ...


2

Casey Rule gave a fine answer, I just want to point out a few things about harmonizing in general and you should be aware of while trying to harmonize a bass line. iii chords are quite rare in a major key, in fact in all my classical theory studies I don't remember analyzing anything that used any type of iii chord in a major key. While viiĀ° is a viable ...


1

I know it as usual that fff means as loud as possible and ppp is as quiet as possible Those two are the maximum in every direction i know as usual. For the most cases this should be enough. For listeners 8 volumelevels (ppp, pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, fff) is hard to differentiate, but for the players it can also be hard to play it the same every time. ...


1

I would actually expect that having more levels simply means that you're expected to recognize the relative differences between different segments of the piece being played, thus allowing you to play the song more closely to how the original composer intended. Example: if you had pp, mp, ff and fffff you would probably play those parts somewhat differently ...


1

There are no consistent technical specifications attached to the various numbers of letters. Thus, any number of letters can theoretically be used by the composer. However, it is important to remember that any more than three or possibly four starts to get extremely difficult to read at all quickly. Also, they are not set to a concrete Db level, but the ...


1

Adding to other answers - there are some good physical reasons. The most consonant interval, apart from octave, is the perfect fifth. Sounds that are perfect fifth apart blend really well, because the lengths of their waves have proportions of 3 to 2, so the basic sound pattern repeats every 6 "basic units" (two vibrations of the lower string take exactly ...


1

There is confusion with the term diatonic. Most sources I've checked refer to the notes in major and minor scales. This is reflected within the key signatures. Thus any note from G major, including F# but not F, will be diatonic. So a tune which uses only those notes, in that key, at that point in the piece, will be diatonic. The minors have a bit of ...


1

You are correct. The pattern of tones and semitones that make up a diatonic scale can be transposed to any starting pitch without altering the "diatonic-ness" of the scale. All major and natural minor scales are diatonic. If you look at the T/S pattern for the scale you list (starting on A) it's: TSTTSTT. A diatonic scale is any rotation of this pattern ...


1

Yes the G major scale is diatonic. The basic idea of something being diatonic is that you would be able to "pass though" all letter named notes in the scale. By doing this each scale degree would get an individual letter name. 'Dia' itself means though and any scale that goes through all 7 letter named notes and repeats is diatonic. So in the key of G ...



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