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"All music is folk music. I ain't never heard a horse sing a song." -- Louis Armstrong American folk music has the following characteristics: Acoustic instruments Simple chord progressions such as C-F-G or Am-G Simple time signatures such as 3/4 or 4/4 "Sharp" or natural keys such as C, D, E, G or A Simple scales such as pentatonic minor (blues), ...


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Although much of the harmony here is triadic, few of the chords function in a conventional way. It is possible to give each chord a "name"; for instance, the first 13 bars could be notated as these chords (with a little enharmonic licence): Em / / / | B7sus4 / B7 / | B7b5 / Bm7b5 Dm7b5 | E7 / Em7 Edim7 | Am7 / F#m7b5 ?? | F#m7b5 / D#dim7 ?? | D7 / / / | ...


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The term for chord connections like this, where each note of the chords changes (usually chromatically, almost always step-wise) one-by-one, is linear harmony. It's quite common in Liszt, Scubert, Schumann, etc. Roman numeral analysis is mostly pointless during linear harmony passages, most analysts will either just label it as linear harmony until the next ...


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From an English perspective, 'folk music' has just as much variation as previously stated, but the main sub-genres seen are traditional folk and the American folk described above. I'll leave the American stuff to these guys who have summed it up quite nicely, but the traditional music can be categorised by a few factors. It is generally harmonically and ...


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Try using "Tonal counterpoint in the style of 18th Century - Ernst Krenek (1953)" along with your surgical explorations of the Italian masters and write variations on their themes


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"Folk music" is not a genre. "Folk music" is many hundreds of different genres. There are three broad categories of music, "classical", "folk", and "commercial". Folk music is simply whatever music that is made by people as a part of their culture, casually, and with no real expectation of earning money from it. Folk music depends upon the culture from ...


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"All music is folk music. I ain't never heard a horse sing a song." -- Louis Armstrong First off, let's narrow things down a bit here. It sounds like you're talking about American folk music rather than folk music as a whole. Other folk musics would take a book to explain. American folk music has the following characteristics: Acoustic ...


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Harmony refers to the "vertical" relationship between simultaneous pitches in a musical texture (usually, but not always, chords - see below for the exception). However, it also refers to the "horizontal" relationships between successive vertical relationships of pitches; it's probably easiest to think of these as chord progressions. The exception, mentioned ...


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Harmony supports the melody. Polyphony is when there is more than one independent melody. The basic idea is that in polyphony is that each melody can stand on its own independent of the other melody. Common examples of this are rounds, fuges, and counterpoint. In the case of harmony, everything supports the melody. Their may be secondary melodies or the ...


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I bVII IV is a very common progression in rock and pop and can be found in the following songs: Rolling Stones - sympathy for the devil Lady Gaga - born this way Lynyrd skynyrd - Sweet home Alabama (though, some hear this as a V IV I) Elton John - Saturday nights alright for fighting U2 - desire Van Morrison/Them - Gloria And literally thousands of other ...


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Another way to look at it, apart from Bob's as usual, good answer, is to consider that E,D and A are all the major chords found in A major. If you were to solo over a piece in A maj., you'd use A maj. notes. O.k., you'd centre more on A, but probably on, say, E, you'd centre more on E. So the A maj. scale notes will still work, very similarly to how you ...


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There is an interesting irony here, because the song Lee linked to ("Taro") doesn't do any of the things that one would immediately think of as concluding: it doesn't actually bring the rhythm to a stop, nor does it end on the tonic chord. Instead it fades out on a repeating, open-ended cycle of simple diatonic chords (ii - I - vi - V). I would guess that ...


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A good starting point is to write out all the notes in the chords you're playing (although if there are more than a few this might be harder). Usually (but not always), these chords are likely to be linked in some way harmonically, and so you may notice that all the notes are within one or more familiar modes or scales. For instance, the notes in the chords ...


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I would recommend a I64 V I cadence, with the bass going "so so do." For example in C major: with a ritardando. I see jjmusicnotes recommended cadences, and this one is the most common.


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Without getting into an entire lecture, here are some things you can do to make someone feel as though a piece of music is being concluded: Go to an extreme (pitch, dynamics, tempo, instrumentation) either to the most/high/loud or the soft/slow/low end for example. Typically rhythmic, harmonic, and melodic motion slow down. If there are motives or ...


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The ear training is important. Additionally, one thing nobody mentions which is very important, is to learn how harmonize and reharmonize those passages - how to fit chords and substitute chords to the melody - and then to improvise using those chord tones. There is also such a thing in music known as avoid tones, which is a fancy way of saying "tones that ...


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Some more tips from Jazzology: Here are some notes that can be added to a chord to give a more 'jazzy' sound. Major triad: add 6th and 9th add M7 and 13 add #11 to either of the above for extra dissonance Minor 7th (works as ii): add 9 add 11 and/or 13 above the 9th for extra dissonance Minor triad (works as i): add 6 and 9 add M7 add 9 and/or 13 ...


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I like the other answers here, but I want to stress that species counterpoint developed out of analysis of existing music. Palestrina had never heard of species counterpoint. He just wrote music. Fux and others like him then looked at Palestrina's music and said, hmm, well, he does this and this in these circumstances, so we'll call that the first ...


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Changing the doubling of IV6 will not help, as the issue concerns the progression of the root, which must appear in at least one inner voice. The doubling is definitely the lowest-priority rule, so 4 should proceed to 2, possibly jumping up to 5 if necessary to connect to the next harmony. (Taking advantage of the fact that the original asker did not specify ...


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You may want to explore my collection of chords and supporting information. What makes this uncommon (unique?) is the fact that this collection of guitar chords illustrates and functionally identifies the component chord voices, rather than just indicating a marker to "put your finger here". This collection is almost completely comprised of movable chords -- ...


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You might consider looking at Jack Perricone's Melody in Songwriting. It's designed for, obviously, songwriters, but the basic principles of melody it sets forth are applicable to any kind of music.


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Well, the reductive answer is that there's nothing special about it and that the only thing that makes a leading tone "want" to resolve to the tonic is hundreds of years of musical convention, since this tendency exists in a Western scale but not necessarily in other scales. The tuning of the Western scale has changed a lot over the course of those hundreds ...


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This is certainly not universally accepted, but I say a half-step isn't really a fixed entity; rather there are a couple of different "half"-steps of different size that can serve different purposes. That particular leading vii-I step, according to some performers – Pablo Casals was perhaps the most radical propagator of this idea – should be ...


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As the other answers have said, a secondary dominant is a 7th chord that resolves to a chord other than the tonic. The classic example is a D7 chord in the key of C: the D7 resolves to G, which itself resolves to C. Dominants create tension To understand the theory and practice behind secondary dominants, you have to understand that all dominant chords ...


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Theory Secondary Dominants are chords that are the Dominant (V) chord of a certain key other than the Tonic (I) key. For example, let the current key be C Major. An F Major chord is the Subdominant (IV) of the current key (C Major). How about a C Dominant 7th chord? That is not in the current key, but you know it's the Dominant 7th (V7) of F Major, and F ...


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In common-practice theory, secondary dominant chords are chromatic harmonies used to approach a non-tonic chord with greater urgency. Let's use C major for examples: I might want to approach the V chord (G) with a secondary dominant to give greater direction or "color" to the approach. I construct the secondary dominant by going to the V chord of the V ...


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A secondary dominant chord is when you turn a minor or major 7th chord into a dominant chord, in order to make another chord the tonic chord. I can't tell you exactly what's the theory behind this, but I can tell you a bit about how they're used, not so much for composition but for arrangements: Take for example a typical chord progression I-VI-II-V. If we ...


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Some writers, e.g. the User Manual for Finale, are perfectly happy talking about "key signature accidentals."


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I would like to suggest that there are three sources of this so-called "key symbolism": The actual differences in pitch, e.g. take the rich D-flat major triad that ends a Romantic piano piece such as Chopin's "Fantaisie-Impromptu" and transpose it up or down a major third, noting how "muddy" it is in A and how "shallow" it is in F. Conventions and ...


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For stringed instruments such as the violin, playing in sharp keys (more accurately, 0 to 4 sharps) means making multiple main notes of the tonality coincide with open strings. This amplifies the instrument's show-off potential in two ways: In fast passages, fingering is simplified because any time the melody touches on one of the four open strings, ...


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I want to make an addition to all these excellent answers. With just intonation, it's not possible to make all the chords just. Not even in a single key. Let's look at the common just major scale based on I, IV and V just major triads: C 1:1 D 9:8 E 5:4 F 4:3 G 3:2 A 5:3 B 15:8 In this scale, I, IV, V major triads (4:5:6) and iii and vi minor triads ...


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A few ideas: The most difficult but most flexible approach would be to continue playing with the synth programming until the synth sounds in tune on more notes, or program more synths to have similar sounds on different notes. Use pedal point. A bassline using pedal point constantly plays the same note, regardless of the changes in harmony. Done well, ...


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Using a section of the circle of fourths: G C F Bb Eb You can see the 7th to 3rd progression, which is very common in chord progressions and improvisation. The classic 2-5-1 in theory follows the circle of fourths. Resolving the 7th to the 3rd of adjacent chords gives a very nice movement to songs and solos. Gmi C7 Fmajor (2-5-1) 2-5-1, 3-6-2-5, ...


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Not sure whether you mean if a tune is in, say, F#, but the guitar is tuned differently, what key should that part be written in. If so,the guitar is in G. Or, do you mean is Gb a better key than F#.Pretty well as bad/good as each other.But if a piece HAS to be in one of those, it begs the question why? Most songs will not have such a great range of notes ...


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When it comes to choosing a key signature, there is no standard. Except that most players are loathe to read music in keys with more than 7 sharps or flats. Aside from a few diehards who insist that F# is a different key than Gb (and it was, before the equal temperament system was developed), one rule of thumb is to use the key most commonly used for the ...


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A scale is a set of notes. For instance, the D Dorian scale contains the notes D, E, F, G, A, B, C, and D. A mode is a scale or scales with musical functions attached to the notes. For example, the Dorian mode of Gregorian chant (sample here) has D is the tonic A is the reciting note (listen 1:34) B is often replaced by B-flat, especially in progressions ...


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Look up "Coltrane changes" in wikipedia.org. Essentially, they consist of a minor third interval followed by a perfect fourth interval (e.g. B-D-G-Bflat, etc.). Coltrane's compositions "Giant Steps" and "Countdown" are good examples, as well as his changes on the bridge of his recording of the standard "Body and Soul". The wikipedia article explains this ...


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It's taken from the full major scale. Two notes are omitted - the 4th and 7th. So in C, for instance, the notes C,D,E,G and A are used. F and B are not.Those notes are quite likely to clash with chords played in that key, unless the player knows what to do.The simple reason being, no two notes are very close to each other (at least two frets(a tone)). Yes, ...


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Well, you can think of it in one of two ways. Interpretation 1: Relation to popular music: Popular music tends to be based on the major scale, which you've probably encountered. The major scale has a whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half structure. I'll provide two examples because music theory books always use C major and I think that stunts ...


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The scale has five unique pitches (hence the name) and they are separated by the intervals: W–W–m3–W–m3 where W is a whole step and m3 is a minor third (3 frets). The last m3 takes you to the starting pitch an octave higher. Example: C–D–E–G–A–C


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My Music Theory professor pretty much distilled it to 3 bullet points of do's and dont's Don't: Ever double tendency tones (notes that must resolve a certain way like the leading tone, notes outside the key, and chordal 7ths) Do: Seek to double the tonic, subdominant, and dominant (1, 4 and 5) Do: If not possible , seek to double the root of the chord. ...


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One reason is that if you're specifying an augmented 2, its probably because you have an augmented second and a major third in the chord. These notes are only a half step apart, and that is very dissonant. Since we don't have, for example, a "minor fourth" interval, the third will always be major if an augmented 2 is involved. I guess there could be ...


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It seems to stem not from the meaning that we attach to the words now, but the past. Consonant meant it sat well in the key, dissonant, the opposite. So, when WRITTEN in music, a minor 3rd belongs in a given set of notes, whereas a #2 is not found.It appears to be more of a technicality than a reflection of what it actually sounds like. Turn a minor 3 ...


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A key thing to keep in mind is that technically a minor 3rd and an augmented 2nd are different pitches (have different notional fundamental frequencies), at least in anything other than equal temperament. In just intonation, these two pitches differ by approximately 40 cents (list of intervals), enough to make a perceptable difference in the degree of ...


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Well, without any further context there is no possible distinction between a minor third and an augmented second as they are indeed the same note, technically. However, the phrases minor third and augmented second make reference not only to that space of three semitones, but also to the relationship that this interval plays within a given chord or scale. ...


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You are looking at the chords in an interesting way, but you are over complicating the subject a lot and have a few slight misconceptions. I to V or i to V is a very normal chord movement and it is quite strong, but the the opposite is much stronger i.e. V to I or V to i. The movement is so strong at the end of a phrase the movement is known as an authentic ...


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Music Theory is an academic discipline that throughout history has been developed in order to better understand the music being written and played by composers and performers. As such, it is also an incredibly useful tool in teaching all kinds of music to beginners. In many cases, the composers of the day were teaching students to follow rules that they ...


1

Wind instruments have their basic mechanisms and ranges designed around a diatonic scale, and notation is also designed around a diatonic scale. If you tell all piano players "from now on, you'll be playing everything a minor third higher on sight", all except the most skilled ones will not be amused: their keyboard is designed around the diatonic scale of ...


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The question is so broad I don't think it can be answered accurately. In terms of melody and harmony, there is a basis in physics for the concept of the "octave", where doubling or halving a note's frequency of vibration will result in a note that sounds as though it has the same identity, despite being higher or lower. So that is the finite source of ...


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A chord with those five pitches is a Gmaj7(#11). A major-seventh chord has a root, major-third, perfect-fifth and a major-seventh. So, a Gmaj7 chord has the notes G, B, D and F#. The fifth (D) would often be left out of this chord, without affecting the overall sound much, or the naming of this chord type. This article about extended (tertian) chords points ...



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