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The half step motion is allowed, but you may have difficulty with voice leading. If your voices (from bass to soprano) are C/F/A/f and you go directly to A major with C#/E/A/e, the tenor and soprano move in parallel octaves, which violates the four-part voice leading rules. Same if C/A/c/f goes to C#/A/c#/e; the bass and alto move in parallel octaves. ...


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Yes, moving chromatically within one voice is totally fine. It's actually a secret trick composers use to get choirs to sing atonal / pantonal music. That said, if it's too chromatic, you'll have problems. Typically in choral writing, certain movements are not allowed because they are difficult to "hear" in the mind before the person sings. Intervals ...


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There are many different ways to change the style of a particular piece. Fur Elise is a relatively easy one, because the chords can be heard very easily. As you can see, it switches off from E7 and A all the way until you get to C. Then it goes to G, Am, and E (not shown). For what ever reason, the man in the video opted to go for F major instead of A ...


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While the typical notes are based on divisions of 2 (i.e. whole, half, quarter, 8th, 16th, ect) using tuples you can have any almost any ratio of notes you can utilize to split up a measure. Here is a layout of notes from whole notes to what you could call 9ths: As you can see all take up a whole measure of 4/4 and dived them equally and you could ...


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In essence the top number tells us how many beats / pulses the bar contains and the lower number tells us what each beat consists of. The top number is rather easy 2,3,4,5 or 7 beats in a bar. The bottom number notates what beats consists of in the following manner. 2 = minims 4 = crotchets. 8 = quavers There is also Compound Time Signatures which ...


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Take a simpler example: what would a time signature of 2/3 mean? If you divide a whole note into three equal parts, in conventional notation you would write that as a triplet of half-notes (= UK minims). But suppose you want the music contain some normal-length half-notes followed by just two notes at the speed of a triplet, and them continue normal-length ...


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The denominator doesn't have to be a power of 2. From Wikipedia: The lower numeral indicates the note value that represents one beat (the beat unit). The upper numeral indicates how many such beats there are grouped together in a bar. For instance, 2/4 means two quarter-note (crotchet) beats per bar and 3/8 means three eighth-note (quaver) ...


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Time signature and tempo are not related. E.g., if a piece is written in 4/4 (as in your case) you have no way of knowing how fast you're supposed to play it. In classical music it is common to give tempo indications by Italian words, like Andante, Presto, etc. (see this list). In popular music you would often encounter tempo indications like ♩=120, ...


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On the face of it - nothing! The notes (or any notes on any music) are relative to each other, not to a particular speed of playing. Unless you are given the b.p.m. there is NO indication of exact speed. On a lot of serious (classical, et at) music, there will be a vague indication in a word at the head, like 'presto', or 'adagio'. Look on a good metronome, ...


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The reason a mode sounds different is simple: which note is targeted as the base. which means which note is emphasized more than others. really it's a combination of the base note and the fifth above it. emphasizing these two notes more than the others give a different sort of tonality than a home base of "C and G".


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Traditional music theory is basically diatonic harmony. I disagree with previous poster saying that the guitar is not an ideal instrument to learn theory on. Of course it's ideal, because it's a harmonic instrument (you can play chords on it). It and the piano are both ideal to learn theory on. Plenty of music teachers can instruct you in theory. And there ...


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Most tuplets are not affected by the time signature. However, two duplet eighths in 3/8 will cover 3/8, two duplet eighths in 5/16 will cover 5/16. A septole eighth in 4/4 will likely cover a whole measure unless the composer is from the school that n-toles may only be shorter than regular notes (but then how to explain duplets?). In cases where you have ...


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A time signature does not affect the duration of any tuple. For example: An 8th note triplet will always take up 1/3 of a quarter note A 16th note triplet will always take up 1/3 of an 8th note A 32nd note triplet will always take up 1/3 of a 16th note An 8th note duplet will always take up 1/2 of a dotted quarter note A 16th note duplet will always take ...


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Absolutely! Shepard-Risset tones sound as if they are continuously rising or falling; this is done by continously changing the overtone content of the sounds such that when the central perceived pitch has gone up or down an octave, the same tone an octave below (for ascending) or above (for descending)has faded in, and the same tone an octave above has faded ...


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Communicating in a language that is not your own can be very frustrating! The answer is yes, and they are called combination tones Some examples here when certain pitches are tuned to just intonation (simple integer rations) they can interact and produce other simple ratio notes, ending up with chords that sound like they have more notes in than you are ...


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You can go to a music shop that is well stocked with sheet music, method books, etc., and ask them to point you to the music theory workbooks section. Pick out Volume 1 of each series (all the major publishing houses have such a series), take them over to a comfortable chair, and choose one that appeals to you. Please don't be put off by the small amount ...


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You are right. Guitar method books don't teach much traditional music theory. This is because the guitar is not an ideal instrument upon which to learn music theory. Traditional Western music theory, as it is taught in colleges, is based around choral music. You learn to read and analyze choral music, and later to arrange and write your own chord ...


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Get a teacher. Nice and simple. One with a college degree where he or she did at least four years of theory studies. Ask him or her what kind of melody and harmony work he or she did. If he or she can write fugues and has a good knowledge on counter point then he or she would get you far. Just remember that for every 10 practical teachers there may be one ...


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All relative modes work the same no matter the scale. For example in the case of major and minor pentatonic scales in your example the C major pentatonic scales and the A minor pentatonic scales contain the sames notes as you can see here: C Major pentatonic: C D E G A A Minor pentatonic: A C D E G The differences is what the tonic (or root) ...


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I can strongly recommend reading Harry Partch's Genesis of a Music, in which he goes into depth on the history of tunings and the reasons for them. Out of this he derives his 43-tone-to-the-octave scale, and then talks about the instruments he had to build and adapt to play music in this scale, and the compositions he did using them, in detail. The 43-tone ...


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It is neither easy nor difficult to compose in JI, it is not a significant part of the history of western music, especially over the past 600± years. JI is based on the fundamental. Western music in developing tonality is based on sets of hierarchical relationships where 'scale degree' ^1 is more important than ^5, and harmonically, ^5 is more important than ...


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I have been researching modes recently and 'The Concise Explanation of Church Modes' by CC Spencer was recommenced as a place to start my research. According to Spencer each plagal mode and its harmonizations' were "ruled" by the modes corresponding authentic scale. For instance while Hypo-Dorian would start a fourth below the opening tone of D it would ...


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This was the initial post: Just for clarification about the term modulation: As a musical term it means the process of moving to another key (as TONICA) (root) by means of a chord-progression that clearly establishes the functional part (TONICA) of the new key. Sometimes it is enough to play a DOMINANT seventh chord to establish the new TONICA of a ...


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For your two examples in particular we have a very precise naming convention in german. Let's see if this works in english, too. 'Achtel-Feeling' vs. 'Triolet-Feeling' As you can see the word 'Feeling' is very german ;-))) In english this would be STRAIGHT- FEEL vs. SWING-FEEL... Groove is the groove of a LP(LongPlay, Schelack, Record) and just means ...


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For me gramatical correctness is way more important than readability! Because at the end of the day when you play a piece of music you use the score only as a rough reminder for what comes next. What a score is actually for is to preserve musical intent for the future. And here an approach as precise as possible is absolutely necessary. How could a ...


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I have a similar approach like @Dom but there is one thing I do feel very differently. If it were a major scale in F - the pattern of the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th that has way more the taste of a minor scale wouldn't be so molesting to my western ears. In german this is also called 'harmonic major' because it resembles both - the major scale and the harmonic ...


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The typical way the CAGED method is in reference to the to the different shapes of major barre chords and how the major scale corresponds to the chord shapes at those positions. While you can also use this to think in a modal way using the same chords and position based on the patters, it will not work for harmonic minor and melodic minor because they ...


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PART 1: As for the distance between Bass and Tenor in your first example - I wouldn't worry to much about that when played on a keyboard. As Neil already mentioned above - when applied to a choir SATB setting this could be problematic - but in my point of view not so much because of the distance but rather that amateur Tenors do have their confy-zone ...


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PART 2: Just imagine a chord progression in a modal scale like DORIAN. In the context of all the white keys of a keyboard (C scale) you would find the dorian scale when you start from D. The typical end sequence of a phrase (cadence) would be I-VII-I -> Dm-C-Dm But also I-V-I -> Dm-Am-Dm So there you've got your i-v-i ;-) I guess there is not a ...


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The reason for the "major" dominant chord in common practice harmony is the general principle that "the key is defined by its leading note." The progression i-v-i is perfectly musical, but it doesn't strongly define "i" as the tonic chord of the key. A minor-chord progression like i-v-iv can make good musical sense if the voice-leading follows the descending ...


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I would rather say that there is no theory behind it but rather a kind of style and a tendency to connect chords in the shortest way possible. That meaning - every note of a chord has to go to the closest note of the following chord with the least possible resistance -> shortest movement and easy to sing if you see each chord progression as different ...


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May this not be counted as a complete answer for I unfortunately do not have enough reputation to comment. A few possibilities: the top staff is for another instrument or vocals (in which case I think it would possibly be smaller); I think the piece might be written for an organ as well.(see Bach's Toccata and Fugue example); as others have stated, the ...


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This is a great little exercise:


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To the A minor pentatonic scale, while soloing, if you also add in the 2 and the 6 (B and F), it will give you another tool to making some cool sounding music. I did this while soloing over a C major backing track and was pleasantly surprised. I liked the effect even better than the b5 or "blues note". Even adding the major 3rd (C#) as a quick passing note ...


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These are mensural time signatures. Before I explain their general meaning, I would just note that these signatures should not be used without extensive explanation unless you're notating specifically for an early-music group. They are not often taught outside of grad school History of Theory type courses. Mensural music was composed in Europe during ...


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To quote from the competition: those are mensural time signatures. Basically, they are symbols from an earlier time period where notation values tended to be more ambiguous but still more rigid than Gregorian notations. Of the mensural time signatures in use then only the ones for 4/4 and alla breve have survived in modified form. All the others are now ...


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Limitations are always good for the creative process. If you are limited to F and F# (from now on I'll call it Gb) in the bass you could create an interesting modal piece by alternating between the chords of Fm7 and GbMaj7 and play over them in the F phrygian mode (F Gb Ab Bb C Db Eb F - the same notes as Db major or Bb minor). Alternatively (or ...


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Kevin provided advice for making the most of the limitation. I'll offer a couple ideas related to escaping the limitation, in case that's also part of what you're after. If the unwanted aspects occur only on two notes, it's not inherent to the waveform, so if you have the means sample one note, you can then reproduce it the way you want on many notes via ...


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If you are just beginning guitar, start learning to read standard notation in conjunction with guitar immediately. If you're not going to start with it, don't expect to pick it up quickly after you've been having success without reading. I can attest that learning to read music for guitar is harder when you already have habits and methods for getting ...


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Do you intend to learn Classical guitar? In any case, reading music on the guitar from the treble clef is not specialized because the guitar does not transpose. You can learn to read music on the Treble Clef in any standard theory book (which usually follows the piano convention). If you move up only one fret on your 5th string from the bottom (assuming ...


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David Cope in "Computer Models of Musical Creativity" points out (rare) cases where Bach used parallel fifths in his chorales. In analysis, the alternatives are less satisfactory than Bach's use of the parallel fifth. Students of counterpoint, however, will very likely be expected to find some other way to resolve such a case that does not involve simply ...


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When you harmonize a passage for four parts what you have to get your head around is that you are writing a melody within the confines of the given chord progressions. There is somewhat leeway in regards to root position and first inversion but you want to use these inversions in a way as to make the melody you are writing appealing. So this means smooth ...


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This progression works because of its strong chromatic movement. Note that there are two chromatic lines moving downwards. One of them (in the bass) was already noted in Dom's answer. The first is the bass line: Ab-G-Gb-(F) (the Gb can move down to the F, which is the fifth of the Bb chord). The other chromatic movement is F-E-Eb-D. Apart from the chromatic ...


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Written and played properly, it's also used as a blues turnaround. Often with the notes played as triplets, the first 3 being Ab-F-Ab, etc. Ending with F and D played together.


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Just studying the basics of music theory and voice leading should give you the tools to notice what's going on. No matter what the chords in the progression, it's pretty easy to figure out what is going on by looking at the notes in the progression, how the move, and what they emphasize. I quickly sketched out one possible voicing for this progression in ...


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Look for a book on harmony? Schoenberg builds things up from chord positions to progressions (and rants about The War And Other Things!) in "Theory of Harmony" while Piston uses examples taken from common practice music in "Harmony," to name just two books. Some knowledge of counterpoint may also be helpful, e.g. to better understand voice leading.


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I read comments in here talking about 5/8 7/8 and 9/8 (with 9, I mean 4+5 and not 3+3+3) as metric structures "developed" and used by some progressive musicians. For somebody trained as a classical Western musician, it may seem so; but actually here in Turkey and throughout the whole Balkan area, including Asia minor (Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, ...


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A fifth is the smallest non-octave consonant interval, with a frequency ratio of 3:2. If you start stacking pure fifths, the first result reasonably close to stacked octaves (2:1) is 12 fifths, which turns out to be 531441:4096 as opposed to 128:1 for 7 octaves. That's as close as you can get for a reasonable number of notes per octave. So if you are ...


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As others have stated there is a temporary modulation. But the particular change you are referring to (IV to iv) actually comes from the Harmonic Major Scale. The scale was named by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. For instance a C harmonic major scale consists of the notes C D E F G Ab B (C). Contrary to the usual (ionian) major scale: C D E F G A B. Some good ...


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The chord basic progression I - VI - IV - II - V - I has been around almost as long as tonal music. Pop song writers have used it hundreds of times, and so did Mozart. In the key of F, that is F - Dm - Bb - Gm - C - F. Add a few 7ths if you want, of course. But you can precede almost any chord with its "secondary dominant". The dominant of Dm is A, so F - ...



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