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3

"...is there a rule conductors use for ritardando in terms of (a) its rate, (b) its change in rate, and/or (c) the relationship between the final tempo and the tempo of the piece?" Not that I'm aware of. Such a rule would be of little value, because -- unless you're practicing with a drum machine, or other device that permits varying tempo -- there's ...


1

"Beyond feel and experience"? Using a mathematical formula to create a ritard in music would not be beyond using instinct, but vice versa. It's nearly impossible to create an authentic ritard in computerized music because composers don't create ritards to slow down the music, but to create an emotional reaction in the audience. The rates of ritards depend on ...


1

"...the particular role/reputation of each chord in a movement..." The key term you're looking for here is functional harmony. In a typical harmonic analysis, you determine what the chords are in terms of their root (e.g. 4th scale degree) and their quality (e.g. major chord, with a major 7th) to determine the name of the chord (e.g. IVmaj7). In functional ...


0

Music has not always been written with chords in mind. Throughout history, there have been different relationships between notes that formed stylistic zeitgeists that we now think of as musical periods. Historically, there have been certain chord progressions that have been common, but few composers wrote toward a specific progression; the way much ...


1

Ugh! I used to be initimidated by this modal thing initially. Turned out to be the simplest thing once I got it down. It's all about how you think of it. And it was during this time that I learnt the actual function of chords. Say, you're playing C-F-G-F-C, a I IV V progression in Cmaj. Now, play anything you want from Am/G-mixo/C-maj scale, yes I know they ...


0

Your progression is in the key of C. All the chords and notes you mention are diatonic in the key of C. Also there is no A major chord in your progression. The chord A ( sus4) is diatonic in the key of C because it is comprised of the individual notes A,E ,D..these notes are all diatonic in the key of C. There is no C# note in your progression and you would ...


8

There are many different ways to approach playing bass and depending on what style you are trying to go for it may be all you need to fill the sound. I'll explain a few simple styles and techniques that can spice up a bass line. Octaves Rather simple, but effective. Your still playing only the root note, but changing the octave is a very simple and ...


5

The first suggestion I would make is learn some music theory. While not necessary, music theory can help make sense of what your doing. For example, lets say there is a song that rotates through a very basic I-V-vi-IV progression. Music theory will help you understand not only how the notes of each chord relate to each other but also allow you know what ...


3

For instance this? choord: | D | | G | | D | | note: | D - - - | A - - - | G - - - | - A B C# | D - - A | D E D C# | Bm | | G ... B - - F# | B C# B A | G ... Most commonly, the bass would play the root (1st) and the dominant (5th), and less commonly other notes of the ...


1

They may have said the Tristan Chord, but I would argue it is resolvable, and in fact not mysterious... as others have pointed out, the analysis works well if you see the G# as a non-harmonic tone, a lower neighbor (in A minor) to the A at the end of the measure. Then we have the following notes, spelling them out in thirds: (B D# F A). We have F in the ...


1

I'm not sure I could call any chord "unresolvable", though I'd have to know the context of the conversation. However, augmented chords (e.g. C-E-G♯), as well as diminished 7th chords (e.g. C-E♭-G♭-B♭♭) -- both of which have been mentioned in other answers -- share a common trait: they are, in some sense, symmetric. Augmented chords ...


0

These are all very good answers. For a more in-depth dig into the issue, I recommend "Tunesmith: Inside the Art of Songwriting" by Jimmy Web, who was a highly successful professional pop music songwriter. "Tunesmith" gives you the music theory that is essential for songwriting and actually takes you through the process of composing a pop song. Jimmy's ...


2

Personally, I find augmented chords (like c e g#) much worse to resolve than diminished chords: diminished chords reduce to a seventh chord by lowering any chord note by a semitone and resolve obviously from there. One can often actually use them functionally instead of a seventh chord in the first place. Augmented chords don't work in that manner. If you ...


6

At one point in time (mainly the Baroque period,) a common way to notate a keyboard part was to simply write the bass part and then notate with numbers what intervals above the bass note were needed to complete the chord. This is called figured bass. So, for instance, if you wanted to indicated a root position 7th chord, you would write 3,5,7 below the ...


11

It sounds like she may have been talking about the Tristan Chord, a famous chord from the opening of Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde. While it can be enharmonically written as a half-diminished 7th chord (F-A♭-C♭-E♭), it does not resolve in the way a half-diminished 7th chord would, nor is it written as a half-diminished 7th chord. For this ...


1

While Dom talks about the V chords which in themselves sound unfinished, they are resolvable. I think it may be diminished chords that you have in mind.They use notes which are usually not within the key in question, thus sound a little strange, and can, by their make-up, go to several different places. The V chord, 9 times out of 10, will find resolution in ...


4

It's figured bass. The numbers correspond to the interval between the bass note and the notes above the bass. In root position you have the intervals 3, 5, and 7 above the bass. 5 and 3 are just standard triad intervals so the it is simplified to V7 In first inversion you have the intervals 3, 5, and 6 above the bass. We have just a 6 to denote a triad in ...


0

The feelings that you want to transmit es very relevant with scale or chords that you use. For example: Minor scale and chords sound dark and sad (ballads). Major scale and chords sound bright and happy (classic pop). Power chords sound powerfull, with a lot of energy (rock, metal, punk). At last, all this musical resources are very related, but they ...


0

One thing you should understand is the relative minor theory. It will be much easier to write songs when you know this. You can create good music with a few major chords and their relative minor chords mixed in. I have been playing and writing music for 10 years, and not until recently have I started studying music theory. That concept really opened up ...


1

How to begin writing songs? In my experience, generating songs without an instrument in hand can drive your acquisition of musical knowledge, and can drive and inspire you to improve your skills on whatever instruments you play. For a time I worked as a lawyer's clerk, and walked all over town. While walking, I would compose songs, of course with no ...


0

Understand chord progressions starting with I IV V from a blues song. You must know tension and resolution. In the blues progression it is easy to hear it. Then listen or get sheet music of songs you like and look at the chord progressions. The chords setup a template to put a melody over it. The challenge is the melody since many writers use common chord ...


4

I'm not 100% sure what your goals are since I see a conflict between using the tone net, which just goes off in all directions with more and more sharps/flats, and your goal of limiting/manipulating the number of sharps and flats. In conventional music the key signatures are (usually) selected so as to avoid double-flats/sharps and the use of chromatic ...


10

Your question is very vague, but I'll try to answer it to you anyway. You are actually pointing at three different skills: Songwriting Composition Musical Knowledge I'll explain to you what these skills are and how to learn them. Songwriting Have you ever seen a dude with a guitar playing love-songs in a corner surrounded by pretty girls? Yeah, ...


0

This piece doesn't follow a strict traditional form; it's free-form. If you wanted to give it a label, fantasia or impromptu would probably be most appropriate. It may be tempting to call this an rondo, as the theme, the first four measures, keeps coming back throughout the song; however, given the brevity of this repeating section and the the fact the the ...


5

How you describe the harmony (chords) at a point such as the beginning of bar 4, depends upon what any chord symbols are going to be used for. There are in fact several ways to notate the passage you're describing. (For this answer I'm assuming that you do indeed want an Am chord sounding with all the bass notes in bars 3-4). Here are some options: if you ...


1

Not entirely sure what question you're asking, but any octave for a bass note will work. When you're on, say, Am, then frequently the bassist will be playing any of the notes which constitute that chord :A,C and/or E. Certainly at the 1st and 3rd beats of a 4/4 bar - the strongest, usually. The last beat or half beat may stray so that it points to the first ...


8

You're not breaking any unwritten rules here. It is in fact pretty common to use the 5th of the chord leading up to the root a fourth higher in the bass. However, in your bassline the question is if you really mean an A minor chord in the last bar. If you hear an A minor chord over both bars in the bottom line then - by definition - that's the way it is ...


3

In my music theory class in college, a suspended chord was written with its resolution, e.g. I⁴⁻³. We didn't get to the point of unresolved suspended chords, as used in jazz.


6

Typically, in traditional classical music, non-harmonic tones like suspensions are not indicated in the Roman numeral analysis. You would simply notate the numeral and inversion for the chord to which you are resolving. Here's an example: In jazz and pop music, on the other hand, you may find the chord analyzed as IVsus or IVsus4, for instance. This is ...


5

If I'm not mistaken, the way to symbolize this is: IVsus or IVsus4 (or IVsus4). (Usually, when you see a IVsus chord, it refers to a sus4 chord, but not everyone writes it this way).


2

Check both: mDecks "Mapping Tonal Harmony": mdecks.com/mapharmony.phtml and Cognitone "Harmony Navigator" and "Synfire": cognitone.com/products/index/page.stml Either one or the other will blow off you mind :)


0

For popular music, you can determine the time signature by listening to the rhythm section, especially the drum kit and bass. These two instruments typically carry the musical pulse. You can figure out the time signature’s note value (lower number) by listening to the subdivisions of the pulse, and you can figure out the time signature’s note count (upper ...


0

Is it that you'd like to learn to play solos ? If so, try searching google and youtube for the "pentatonic scale" which gives you a way of playing a solo in any key (anywhere on the neck). It's not the be-all-and-end-all but it's a very good place to start. At its most basic, it's an easy way of playing blues solos. You can go very far with it though. Eg ...


8

You can't tell for certain either which key this is in, or which chords would appear above these bass notes, but for different reasons... This short excerpt of music has only four pitches: E, D, F# and G - these notes are found in the scales of several keys: G Major and its relative minor E Minor (natural minor) have these notes: E, F#, G, A, B, C, D D ...


0

Just done a trawl through sheet music, to find it's been written with key signatures of C, G and E. The original, which lands on A, has no key sig. Most of the solo work seems to be using E minor pent/blues. It could be construed that it's in E, as that's the chord it gravitates to each verse. Or the chords could be explained (in E) as coming from ...


4

There are many ways to deviate from the pattern. In this example a very common pattern emigres from the circle of 5ths. The chords don't belong to any one key, but rather come from multiple keys. You start with a C and go to G (I to V in the key of C), then you go from a G to a D(I to V in the key of G), then you go from a D to a A(I to V in the key of D), ...


3

Music and maths are indeed closely related (there are innumerable books on this topic), but your question appears to put cart before horse. Musical notation is a product of underlying mathematical models, western musical notation just one of many. Tastes do differ, sometimes wildly. :-) Nevertheless, at a fine grain there are indeed a multitude of formulas ...


4

There is no standard way by which musicians create music to represent mathematical patterns, equations, or other entities. Whenever someone does undertake a project like the ones you found, what they do is create a custom, non-standard mapping between mathematical objects and musical objects or parameters. For example, I once wrote a very simple song to ...


2

The short answer is "any way that you want to". Numbers Converting a single number to music is a relatively straightforward process. A number is a linear string of digits, while a melody can be thought of as a linear string of pitches. Therefore, all you really need is a mapping from a digit to a pitch. There are several possible ways to do this, but the ...


0

Consider understanding Key Signature, Mode and Key. KEY SIGNATURE:: There are essentially 12 distinct Key Signatures: C, the six signatures with sharped notes G D A E B F#, and the five signatures with flatted notes Db Ab Eb Bb F. The order of this listing is such that the signature notes are exactly 7 notes (a Perfect Fifth) apart. Thus the relation to ...


0

This query recalls the tourist in New York City who asked a street local “How do I get to Carnegie Hall?”. The New Yorker replied “Practice, practice, practice!”. You might enjoy beginning in the Wikipedia with this: “guitar”. To whet your search appetite, a few thoughts. GUITAR A standard 6-string guitar is tuned to specific Western Scale notes: E2 A2 D3 ...


1

I've been making music for 30 years, and started formally learning theory last year. Yes, it's easier to learn theory on the piano but there are other ways. I'm assuming you can't play any piano at all, and can either read music or are willing to learn. CAGED Guitar Theory will enhance your ability to translate theory to the fretboard. The general idea is ...


0

As a practical observation, when my guitar students obviously and consistently practiced their scales, all their skills appeared to improve. When reading music, knowledge of where the notes should be was improved by knowledge of the scales. When playing notes the practice of scale playing (Typically more repetitive and intense muscle work then learning to ...


0

I am an amateur piano player, took lessons for 6 months...been playing for 3 years not. My instructor did not bother having me learn scales, due to my age(60). We went right into learning songs. However, I taught myself the major scales in one night; just remember "fat cats go down alleys eating birds", and "beadg". This makes it very easy. Do some ...


2

Rage Against the Machine, Daft Punk, Beastie Boys, Oasis, Radiohead, Nirvana, Green Day, Blur, Wheezer, Verve, Primal Scream, Jeff Buckley... And you haven't got much to go on? That's just bands, there was an entire revolution in dance music!


8

The song could be on G# major; It would be easier to say it's in Ab major scale. These two are the same scale and they are called Enharmonic scales. (I'm using Ab because it is more common and easier to understand). Here is how: Ab (G#) -> 1st chord of your scale. Ebm (D#m) -> 4th of the minor scale with the same name (Ab or G# minor) -- you are allowed to ...


1

Upper structures are tritones over a minor/major triad or the other way round. Forming these chords needs thorough understanding on triads and tritones. A C major7(b5) is an example.C-E-G-B-Gb. there two chords in these...a minor triad nd a tritone/dominant. E-G-B=E minor triad.Also Gb-C=Gb tritone,C tritone and Ab dominant. In remembrance to the fact that a ...


1

I want to start my answer by saying: I don't know. This is a very profound question. It does not have a trivial answer. I don't think anyone knows the answer for certain. Because your question isn't just about how Common-Practice Era Western Music Theory Type analysis proceeds. It's about how we think about what a chord is. What is it about how we hear ...


20

There is a rather more fundamental, physical reason for this than so far mentioned: the bass fills not only the bass frequency range, but its harmonics actually reach well into the midrange where all other voices have their fundamentals! In fact, since the bass has typically the strongest amplitude1 of all tuned instruments (save perhaps trumpets, lead ...


3

This is not a rigorous, scholarly answer, but a useful one: There is a simple, general principle in writing Western music that has been mentioned by many people over the centuries. It basically says that a piece of music has two important components: the melody up top, and the bass line down low. The chords are determined by filling in the spaces between the ...



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