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2

Note: For the sake of discussion, I'm limiting myself here to equal temperaments, which is the most common way of tuning keyboards. Other systems exist, of course, but would probably only confuse the matter. Why do B and C and E and F not have a sharp note between them? Simply because, acoustically speaking, there is no room in our current system for ...


0

In the last three measures, the composer is using a pedal tone (also called pedal point). This is something Baroque composers loved to do at the end of a piece: hold a bass note for several measures while the harmony changes above it.


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The simple answer is that the layout of the piano keyboard is the most useful and efficient possible for playing in equal temperament. There are MANY other tuning systems, of course, but the piano has been designed explicitly for playing the equal-tempered repertoire. You would have to do a little reading into the history of temperaments to learn why equal ...


1

There are some ambiguities in the way your question is stated. It is difficult to interpreted it in a non-arbitrary way; if you suggest adding one key for E# in addition to the present F key why not suggest for example the addition of two keys for B-flat and A-sharp respectively? And if you suggest reinterpreting E# as the quarter-tone between E and F, why ...


2

If you are talking about microtonality - of which I know little, there will have to be a lot more than just changes to E/F and B/C. It's possible to have notes between any adjacent semitones. There could be as many extra notes between G and G# as between E and F. It just happens that it's accepted (and has been for centuries) that the note called F is ...


3

Baroque composers thought in terms of figured bass. To them the bass note was foundational and they thought of the structure above it in terms of the intervals of the notes from the bass. This was because they were trained in using and playing from a figured bass. Analyzing Bach by means of figured bass gets you inside the composer's mind better than any ...


0

The authentic cadence V7 - I actually has several things going for it. One crucial element you're missing is the movement of the bass. Basses going down a fifth or up a fourth are very powerful and is one of the main reason this works. The movement from iii to I however is quite weak. Another element is the tritone between the 3rd and the 7th of the chord. ...


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Here's one possibility, MySong by Dan Morris and others. The technical paper there is worth a read, and its introduction has further references which will probably be worth hunting down. This system doesn't actually play along - it requires a vocal/lead line to be input first, runs an analysis to determine key and fits chords etc. then plays back. Though ...


0

To be honest, I've never really bought the idea that the leading tone is all that important in a perfect cadence. How does that explain the pull of say ii7 , V(open fifth) to the Tonic. You could argue that the leading tone is implied in a Major key, but to be honest, I think the jazzier v7 I (yes minor 7th) has more of a pull than a lot of those leading ...


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Not really. I mean, you could make that, but it's unlikely to sound good without some pretty sophisticated AI. At it's simplest, you could be using any diatonic chord for which the bass note is either the 1st, 5th, or 3rd. But if you step outside really simple pop music, then the bass note could be all kinds of things as many chords are voiced with a bass ...


3

To add what Shevliaskovic has posted it also aids in the speed of learning pieces. If you ever wanted to have an musical eidetic memory you can start to learn such a skill by becoming proficient in score analysis. When you see one of the great pianist for instance play a long concert it sometimes look like they are staring into the distance while playing. ...


1

Broken chords are in essence just a type of arpeggiation the difference being the order in which the notes are played. This is more like an arpeggio. . And this is something more like a broken chord.


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"Arpeggio" is literally "like a harp". Notes are not stopped before playing the next note. If you take a look how a harp plays a multi-octave chord or run, you have to alternate hands and play the fingers one by one (to give the inactive hand time to move to its next position without interrupting the flow of the arpeggiated phrase). When arpeggiating on a ...


3

Well every arpeggio is a broken chord, but not every broken chord is an arpeggio. A broken chord is just as it sounds: a chord that is broken up in some way, shape, or form where you are not playing the the full chord at once. An arpeggio is a specific way of playing a broken chord that has a defined texture to it. While the definition is not a very ...


4

From my experience, seeing what other composers do, by analyzing their songs will help you with your music. I mean you can write a book, but if you read another book, you'll see what other authors are doing Dmin/C and Dmin7/C are pretty much the same. Technically, yes you have to mention the 7, but since the 7th is C and it's on the bass, it's shown on ...


1

ABRSM seems to think there is a difference in that broken chords are played, in the earlier exams, as 1,3,5,3,5,8,5,8,10,8, then in reverse. Or using a 4 note pattern. Sorry, I don't have exam books to hand till tomorrow!. Whereas arpeggios go 1,3,5,8,5,3,1, or 1,3,5,8,10,12,15,12,10,8,5,3,1 for two octaves, etc. The sequence would appear to be different, ...


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The left hand of this is basically arpeggiated chords. So it's just putting an accompaniment with the appropriate harmony under the melody.


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Would this fall into the boundaries of harmony? The answer is simple and it's yes. There are many kinds of harmony. The blues harmony is different than the jazz which is different than the classical etc.


0

Studying theory and learning your scales will help a lot but you also need to practice playing by ear. Start by just trying to pick out the melodies of some of your favorite songs. At first you will struggle but, like anything else, with practice it will get easier. As you get better at this try putting a music channel on the radio and just sit at the ...


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This question is probably no longer active, but should anyone look, here are some of the more detailed points that I have found. Hertz It is suggested that the human ear can have a sensitivity of up to 1 Hz. Good sounding chords are ones that have wavelengths that match sufficiently enough so that the ear cannot tell the difference. If you wanted to ...


0

Yes, you have the right idea. The major and minor pents use exactly the same notes, thinking relative. as in C maj is relative to A min. This also works for full major and natural minor. And if you take modes, for example, C Ionian has the same notes as D Dorian, E Phrygian, F Lydian, G Mixolydian, A Aeolian and B Locrian. This lot can be moved to any key, ...


0

Put emphasis on the C note of the Minor Pentatonic patterns from your example. Start by beginning and ending phrases using the C note in the example you have. You can play all the Minor Pentatonic scale patterns this way directed towards the C note. You have to know where you are going, what is the root note you are after. To define a modes play the scale ...


0

You can easily figure out the Major Pentatonic Scale by thinking of the black keys on the piano. If you start on F# the Major Pentatonic will have all the black keys on the piano. F#-G#-A#-C#-D# From there you can easily deduce the intervals between these notes and then apply them to any other note you want to build this scale on. F#-G# = MAJ 2nd ...


1

A few steps. Learn the theory so you know what the notes are. This will enable you to figure out the shapes for yourself and get a good idea of what chords will go well with you solo. Learn the shapes Don't stymie creativity by only doing scales in one position. Do them in one, two and three string patterns. Start on your 1st, 2nd and even 4th left hand ...


0

Shapes, and not just the "box" or "three notes per string," but also learn the intervals and the shape of the scale up and down each string. This will allow you to connect boxes and also to play some cool sliding-around solos without getting lost.


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As has been noted above, the guitar is a shape-based instrument. So learn the shapes first. But the shapes tend to connect across the fretboard. So after you learn the shapes, learn to connect shapes adjacent to one another by any string. Now you can play up and down the fretboard. But the strongest notes you can play in a solo are the chord tones ...


0

The 3-part tempo marking system gives a lot of useful information to the performer. Generally, you have a tempo marking (130bpm or allegro), an upper number specifying the number of beats in the measure, and a lower number designating which note gets the beat. Sure, quarter note = 130 is sufficient. But at that point why use barlines at all? I would argue ...


7

If you have 4/2 (for same BPM)the half note duration is now equal to 0.5 seconds? Yes. The bottom number indicates the reference symbol used to measure the unit pulse. Therefore, half-notes are played at 120bpm. As others have suggested, almost zero musicians think of notes as durations of fractions of a second. If that is so the lower number in ...


0

You're too hung up on the idea of measuring note durations in seconds. We don't really do this (okay, maybe some electronic music producers do, but not the vast majority of musicians). We have, as the primary indications of rhythm, the type of note getting the beat and the number of beats per measure. You can then take this framework and apply a ([note ...


1

I agree with others here to learn shapes first. There are plenty of resources on the internet to get diagrams. You will be learning the fretboard as you go along learning shapes. The shapes as you will see connect across the fretboard. Also, you will build muscle memory in the hand and it will be easier to solo in the future.


3

I think the confusion here is mixing two different conventions. The notion of "BPM" arose from tempo indications in MIDI sequencing, in music genres where staff notation isn't used at all, or is not very important. If you want to relate MIDI tempo to staff notation, the standard (defined in the Standard Midi File Format specification) is that "beat" = ...


0

The guitar is very block/box orientated, and lends itself well to learning in shapes. You'll need to know notes (some), in order to find start points, but I feel there is no need to know each note as you play it. The reference against the previous and following notes is more important.


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This first part applies to all the string instruments, not just the guitar. Most people that play guitar/bass/double bass etc learn the certain shapes that each scales consist of. This has a great benefit: you can easily transpose to any other key. For instance, if you know the shape for a major scale, and you practice it in C major, you can easily go to ...


5

The lower number ties the beat length to a particular musical symbol. N/2 indicates so many minims (half notes) to the bar, N/4 = so many crotchets (quarter notes), N/8 = so many quavers (eighth notes). One reason for using a particular note length versus another is purely for convenient notation. e.g in compound time signatures like 6/8, 9/8, etc groups of ...


2

As a formula, it may be better as 1,2,b3,3,5,6.Which actually translates to the same as that of the minor blues, but displaced by a minor third - 3 semitones. (Or, starting at note 6 from the above formula and making IT note no.1, the key note). This will then work for all keys. So, in your speak, it's C-D-Eb-E-G-A.


4

While mathematically it indeed seems that way, 4/4 and 2/2 are not the same thing, just like 3/4 and 6/8 aren't. Technically, you can perfectly write a 4/4 piece down using a 2/2 time signature, but there are different nuances to each of these time signatures, which make them quite an important bit of information. I suggest you read the answer to this ...


0

The root movement of dominant to tonic in an authentic cadence is very powerful -- even more, it could be argued, than the leading tone movement. No other cadential formula has this.


2

One important factor that influences how good these progressions sound is the number of common tones between the two successive chords. If we consider vii°-I, there are no common tones between the chords ({B,D,F} vs. {C,E,G}) so all the voices must move, making it a bit rough. On the other hand, if we look at V-I, we see that there is one common tone ...


1

Taking C as the key, there's also Bo (inc. Do,Fo and Abo) that leads nicely to the tonic, C. And the triton of G (the dominant), which is C#7.They're probably not so common as they sound a little strange to people who are immersed in only Pop music. V and V7 are obviously far more commonly used, so it's down to familiarity. Which, in jazz players, will often ...


3

Wikipedia has a nice explanation for what a cadence is: A harmonic cadence is a progression of (at least) two chords that concludes a phrase, section, or piece of music. There have to be at least two chords to create a cadence. But in your example Imaj7-I, there is only one chord. Just because you remove the major 7th, the chord doesn't change; it's ...


1

imagine a guitar with lots of strings all tuned exactly a 4th apart. if we map the intervals of a major scale onto a portion of this imaginary guitar we get something like this - where the numbers represent degrees of an (unspecified) major scale. ----------------------- | | | | | 7 3 6 2 5 1 4 ----------------------- 7 3 6 2 5 1 4 | | | | | ...


1

Mathematically, yes you can play a waltz in 6/8 instead of 3/4. Musically, it's hard to. The difference between these two times signatures is the strong beats that consist each measure. In a 3/4 measure, we have 1 as the strong beat, whereas 2 and 3 are not strong. In 6/8 measure, we have 1 as strong beat and 4 as slightly strong beat; the other beats ...


0

One thing that really locked everything in place for me was the idea that all the scales are essentially interleaved arpeggios (in the loosest sense of the terms) of a chord played at different positions on the fretboard. For A, you have open A, then you have the "barred G pattern for A", where the open A is the barre for the G pattern. This G pattern is ...


1

For me: I started with the good old pentatonic & got used to playing that, then quickly added notes 2 & 6 into my memorised "shape" on the fretboard to turn it into a fulsome minor scale. Move the same fret pattern down 3 frets and it struck me that this is the same set of notes as a major scale in the original key. OR you can just sharpen the ...


7

Depending on how you are using it, pedal point/tone or drone may be the right terms for it. A pedal point is typically a sustained bass note where the melody changes over it, but it can also be a repeated note between itself and other notes as shown in the example below similar to what you describe. A drone is very similar in nature, however it is more ...


3

I have no idea what Bartok was thinking when he wrote this, but one way to create something similar would be: 1. Start with a "big idea". In this case, "hey, what happens if the left hand plays the white keys and the right hand the black keys". (OK, that's not quite accurate because the right hand plays the white key B, but you get the idea). 2. Figure out ...


1

I'm a composition student at UCLA who is in the process of writing his dissertation, which on one level, has a lot to do with modes - so it's on my mind a lot these days (which led me to this site). Here are my thoughts: Robert Fink's answer (above) is an excellent answer. This is the type of answer you would get from someone who has studied music for a ...


5

Look what the score is doing: you have an oscillation rising from F♯ in the initial RH part, moving up to C♯, but artfully dodging A♯. At the same time, you have an accompaniment that consists largely of the fifth D-A alternating with the auxiliary notes E-G. The entire section is acting like an elaboration of a D major chord in a kind of quasi-Lydian ...


0

Basically it's how to pedal with pianos. Jazz tends to change chords more often than other genres of music. So in order to stop the music sounding muddy, pedaling properly is paramount. As the underlying chord is changed, the pedal needs to be lifted and after the next chord is played, the pedal is employed again.


3

As Wheat Williams indicated, context is everything. Oscillating between E and E-flat is notationally awkward. In the absence of other compelling influences, I would notate this as D-sharp. Similarly, Oscillating between D and D-sharp is awkward; in that context I would notate as E-flat. In the context of a major or minor scale, you should notate in a ...



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