Tag Info

New answers tagged

2

Writing a fugue is a mixture of imagination, organization, and mastery of your tools. If you are making a drawing, keeping track of the perspective, the objects you want to appear, and just what object will obscur what other object can be done using ruler and overpainting/erasing as you go. How much time spend masters erasing obscured objects? Fugue ...


6

A fugue is one of the most polyphonic musical pieces you can write. In a typical fugue there are 3 or 4 voices in play that are each treated independent melodies. While this is going on, you have to not only have to keep all the rules of counterpoint in mind for each voice and make sure the harmony always make sense, but you have a structure to keep in mind ...


0

Needs to be noted that it's all relative. Each instrument will have its own dynamic spectrum, so a piccolo won't have the same 'p' or 'f' as say, a trumpet. Also the auditorium must play a part in this. A small hall will surely give 'f' a different no. of decibels to a large one. And there seems to be no actual figures for 'p', 'f' etc. Once some instruments ...


0

I know it as usual that fff means as loud as possible and ppp is as quiet as possible Those two are the maximum in every direction i know as usual. For the most cases this should be enough. For listeners 8 volumelevels (ppp, pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, fff) is hard to differentiate, but for the players it can also be hard to play it the same every time. ...


1

I would actually expect that having more levels simply means that you're expected to recognize the relative differences between different segments of the piece being played, thus allowing you to play the song more closely to how the original composer intended. Example: if you had pp, mp, ff and fffff you would probably play those parts somewhat differently ...


0

Something near 250 Hz is what you expect as 3 times the fundamental. If you draw pictures of a sinewave with no motion at the ends of the string, the 3 rd harmonic is the one with a peak in the middle at the same place as the fundamental, and also a peak (going opposite direction) at about 1/6 of the string length which is not far from the hole in the box, ...


3

Giovanni Gabrielli started it all with just two: piano and forte. Before long, there were also pp (pianissimo, "softest") and ff (fortissimo, "loudest"). Beethoven used fff if I recall correctly, but few composers used more than 2 of each. I know that Tchaikovsky's sixth symphony has ffffff and ppppppp. (Most conductors substitute a bass clarinet for ...


1

There are no consistent technical specifications attached to the various numbers of letters. Thus, any number of letters can theoretically be used by the composer. However, it is important to remember that any more than three or possibly four starts to get extremely difficult to read at all quickly. Also, they are not set to a concrete Db level, but the ...


4

I've seen ppp, pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, fff used commonly giving you 8 levels. ffff and pppp seem pretty rare. There's also no standard for EXACTLY how loud each of these are. Eh, it's the arts. Whattayagonnado ?


3

There is no limit, but for any normal performance pp to ff would be all you need. A p itself means quiet and an f itself means loud. When you add another p or f to each it technically adds "very" in front of each. Examples: pp - very soft ff - very loud ppp - very, very soft fff - very, very loud pppp - very, very, very soft ffff - very, very, very loud ...


1

Specific to performance, swing is a type of timing which some define as dividing each beat in to three pieces and then playing the first and third part of that division. However many would fault this definition, claiming that swing is a "feel" that is not precisely divided into three, or four, or two, but some vaguely specific timing where the beat is ...


0

The style of a piece is entirely subjective, and the composer or editor can use any term they wish! There are, however, a set of common tempos that are also related to rhythm and style (that page lists some that are primarily related to "mood and character" rather than speed). For example, agitato is used to denote not only a hurried pace but actually ...


1

Adding to other answers - there are some good physical reasons. The most consonant interval, apart from octave, is the perfect fifth. Sounds that are perfect fifth apart blend really well, because the lengths of their waves have proportions of 3 to 2, so the basic sound pattern repeats every 6 "basic units" (two vibrations of the lower string take exactly ...


1

There is confusion with the term diatonic. Most sources I've checked refer to the notes in major and minor scales. This is reflected within the key signatures. Thus any note from G major, including F# but not F, will be diatonic. So a tune which uses only those notes, in that key, at that point in the piece, will be diatonic. The minors have a bit of ...


11

This system is the result of the specific historical evolution of Western music notation. The five-line staff was not the first try at writing down the pitches being used in European music. The first systems were just mnemonic, consisting of neumes (squiggles, basically) drawn above the words of a religious text, much like the cantillation symbols that ...


4

In the history of western music, the 7 notes came first. The twelve arise from adding the necessary notes to play the 7-note scale starting on any note of the 7-note scale. In the key of C major, no sharps or flats are needed. C D E F G A B C When you modulate a fourth to F, you need to add the soft B or B♭. F G A B♭ C D E F And for each ...


-2

I don't think there is really a very good reason why it should be those 7 notes rather than the other 5 as well, except for the fact that writing notes in both the lines and the spaces makes the music much easier to read (if you're playing quickly, the notes can blur into each other as it is, with only 5 lines for them to be on!) I suppose also it works ...


1

You are correct. The pattern of tones and semitones that make up a diatonic scale can be transposed to any starting pitch without altering the "diatonic-ness" of the scale. All major and natural minor scales are diatonic. If you look at the T/S pattern for the scale you list (starting on A) it's: TSTTSTT. A diatonic scale is any rotation of this pattern ...


1

Yes the G major scale is diatonic. The basic idea of something being diatonic is that you would be able to "pass though" all letter named notes in the scale. By doing this each scale degree would get an individual letter name. 'Dia' itself means though and any scale that goes through all 7 letter named notes and repeats is diatonic. So in the key of G ...


0

I believe it is easier to see it than to read about it, so here you have the maximum expression of counterpoint, a fugue. You can see how every melodic line has its own rithm and melody, they "don't care" about each other, yet it all sounds great, mostly because the composer is a freaking genius! :D An Easy-to-see Bach fugue, click and in 3 minutes you will ...


1

This is probably a sore issue. "Volksmusik" is one of the most profitable parts of music/TV business and popular with a large part of the elder generation. But the overwhelming part of it is an artificial creation drawing on traditions of the alpine regions (so outside of Bavaria, you are not really talking as much about "German" but "German-spoken") and ...


3

All it means is that is that both voices add up to some kind of harmony (think of chords although they don't have to be), while the the musical lines themselves don't sound or feel alike. These voices can also typically each be perceived as a different melody. There is a much simpler way to say what counterpoint is which is "The study of how to make two ...


3

Yes. It means you can distinguish 2 or more different melodies that sound pretty together. This is not the same as melody and accompaniment; in that case there's one melody and one more voices that form a rather static backdrop. That said Independence is to some extent subjective; a counter melody will be perceived as more independent if it has different ...


11

Independent in rhythm & contour means that the voices may have different rhythms and contour, respectively. For example, if a voice goes up and another goes down, the voices would be moving in opposing motion. Moreover, one voice may be going up, and then down while the other remains going down only. All this means that the voices are independent in ...


3

If fusion players sound to you like 'not in key' or 'playing random notes', then you're either listening to bad players or you're not yet accustomed to the sounds they use. The latter may also have to do with the development of your musical ear. I suggest to listen to good fusion guitarists (e.g., Alan Holdsworth, John Scofield, Scott Henderson with Tribal ...


3

Fusion originated with Miles Davis's "B****** Brew" album. Pat Metheny, Larry Coryell and John Mclaughlin are probably the avatars of fusion jazz, but there are many many other practitioners of the genre, including Martin, Medeski and Wood, Bird Songs of the Mesozoic and the "downtown sound" of Bill Laswell and John Zorn.There are very interesting ideas that ...


1

It depends entirely on the genre, and that is actually one of the defining characteristics of genre. most pop: probably, and mostly. Sometimes augmented by the occasional secondary dominant. Part of why they are so "easy to hear". But if it's torch-songy pop, probably not because they borrow a lot from the style of standards musical theatre or standards or ...


1

This is: IV - V - V/vi - vi. In case you aren't familiar with the notation, V/vi means "Secondary dominant of vi" which is the chord that would be the dominant if vi were our tonic, or in other words, III. Notice that this is different from the chord which normally occurs on the third degree of a major scale, since iii is a minor chord. Also notice that ...


2

Well, counterpoint is not harmonization. The main difference is that counterpoint has its own melodic and rhythmic identity. If you take a look at, say, Bach's great choral works, you'll find some pieces labelled "Choral" which are mainly a melody with harmonization, and some pieces labelled "Chorus" which are strongly oriented along lines of counterpoint ...


1

No; each are separate. Harmony is vertical and treats tones as singular, sonorous entities. Counterpoint is horizontal, and indicates direction. There is harmony in counterpoint, however, it is treated as incidental with the priority being the emphasis of musical line and direction. Each is separate but equal. You could be a master of voice-leading but ...


1

Counterpoint is the study of how to make voices (musical lines) independent. It is not simply just harmony. Harmony comes into play, but if you are working on anything tonal harmony will come into play. The common examples of counterpoint is Bach and Fux, but can be seen a lot in modern music. The most common places you would see counterpoint today is in ...


3

This is described somewhat in the answers here: Scale degree naming Basically, scale degrees are typically numbered according to the (parallel) major key, even if you're actually playing in a minor key, or some other mode. Thus in your case, A major would have a G# and an F#, so the bVII and bVI tells us that they have to be lowered (the sharps removed). ...


0

I was coming at it from a classical background too, and have been using Charles Austin's "An Approach To Jazz Piano" http://www.charlieaustinjazz.com/books.html It's unbelievably thorough. The first half of the book is set up like a course -- everything in order. After that there are topic chapters where you can dive into what interests you.


0

if you want a general method you can apply behind all the theory this chart works for you.Just choose any chords you want and use them accordingly.


1

In addition to jadarnel27's excellent answer, I think it's worth discussing diatonic intervals. A diatonic internal is one that is composed entirely of notes in a scale. For example, in the key of C, a C major chord is made of the notes C E G. The interval between C and E is a major this. A d minor chord is spelled D F A and has a minor third between the D ...


0

The chords you are talking about are called "diatonic" chords: chords whose tones are taken from the scale. If your scale has 7 tones, then you can make at least 7 diatonic chords (depending on how many tones you stack on each chord, or whether you use thirds or fourths to create your chords). The two kinds of scales that "diatonic" is most often used with ...


1

I've rearranged your questions below into an order that allows me to answer them sequentially. What's music? Very loosely speaking, music can be seen as a collection of notes distributed over a period time. Basically, I want to understand why we call things musical notes... What is a note? ...Different materials can produce same notes, so the ...


3

The other answers are pretty good already. Here's a very quick and dirty description of a MIDI file format: A MIDI file may contain up to 65,536 tracks (usually these tracks are intended to play simultaneously). Each track is just a sequence of events. Each event occurs at a specific time (specified as the number of "ticks" since the beginning of the ...


1

MIDI allows for 16 channels, not tracks. Sequencing software will then allocate channels to its track structure. In terms of decoding a standard MIDI file (SMF) we need to understand the internal structure. There are two main types of MIDI file, type zero has a 'chunk' of header information followed by just one 'track' of MIDI data. This track contains all ...


1

Hm. What is music .. I see three aspects : Notes (pitch): As a note is a frequency, there are an infinte number of notes. In western music we divide an octave into 12 semitones (equally spaced musical steps) although other cultures may do things differently. Ely Beau Eastman's excellent video describes how we have come to see things this way, and that ...


10

I've used this before and I know there is a ton of documentation for this program. If you scan the documentation you can find out what the results of each event means. This is directly from the documentation: Track, Time, Note_on_c, Channel, Note, Velocity Send a command to play the specified Note (Middle C is defined as Note number 60; all ...


1

On some theoretical level the notes could be seen as infinite just as the numbers. But there are two important reasons why they are not normally conceived that way: Our hearing is limited to a certain range of frequencies. Given a certain frequency there are only a limited amount of other frequencies that sound good together with this frequency. The ...


0

@Dom answered this from the perspective of harmony, so I thought I'd complement that with an explanation about melody. There is an old theory of melody (maybe it was in Fux' Gradus ad Parnassum? Don't have time to check) that a melody starts "at rest", then "moves", then "returns to rest". This pattern is generally found on at the level of the musical ...


3

In case I am not too late, here is a great theoretical paper on the exact topic. http://www.academia.edu/2835618/A_Multipitch_Approach_to_Tonic_Identification_in_Indian_Classical_Music I have a smallish program that implements section 2.3 of the paper as a Java program. Sections 2.1 and 2.2 are provided by the author as a Vamp plugin and can be used with ...


0

The trick with voice leading is that the concept of voices is meant to be somewhat more abstract than most people realise. It is no accident that voice leading is traditionally taught in four voices. One of these is the bass voice, which is unique, and obeys its own set of rules, because of its need to frequently sing/play the root of the chord. The ...


3

Dm C Dm Am C Dm Asus4 Am - I agree with you that it's a nice chord sequence, and I agree with the other answers, that it's in Dm, not E phrygian. it's pulling towards D, not E. (Dm contains a Bb, whereas E phrygian contains the same notes as Am, including a B natural. As there is no B at all in the chords used, I doubt a computer tool like the one you used ...


3

To add to Bob's excellent answer - E Phrygian contains the same notes as C major, which contains the same notes as A minor. If this were in E Phrygian, there would be a pull towards E. There isn't. All the chords are from C/Am - apart from the recently changed A, which could, as Bob states, put it into Dm. Not sure where E Phrygian came from, but I feel it's ...


6

Definitely sounds like a chord sequence in D Minor to me. Particularly because it starts on D Minor, and the A Minor chords at the end have a dominant function, despite not being major. (An A Major chord at the end would create a strong perfect cadence, A - Dm, when it repeats, which I presume it is supposed to...) These chords are all found in D Natural ...


0

A lot of jazz and blues is based around variants of major and minor, the Mixolydian and Dorian modes respectively. But there remains the same dichotomy. Mixolydian is just like Major but with a flatted seventh scale degree, called the dominant-seventh. Dorian is just like Minor but with a sharp sixth scale degree.


1

In simplest terms, the system of ABCDEFG notes and their variants is a simplification developed over many centuries, designed to create a manageable set of tones (only 12 unique steps per 'octave') while maintaining a good approximation of low integer ratios between the tones' respective frequencies. Modern "Western" music (or, I believe, human music ...



Top 50 recent answers are included