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21

A semibreve rest CAN be used in 6/8 time - or ANY time (apart from 4/2 - quite unusual)) to represent one bar's rest. At that point, it isn't actually a 'semibreve', but represents just one bar of that music. It's become a shorthand way of saying "one whole bar rest".


18

In Printed Music In typeset music, time signatures are usually not written with a line between the numerator and denominator (at least no more of a line than is already there). In Text However, when writing text about music, it is an acceptable convention to use a slash to separate the numerator and denominator. See A Style and Usage Guide to Writing ...


16

A semibreve rest is the symbol to be used for "whole-bar rest", regardless of the meter. A whole-bar rest is also distinguished by being written in the middle of the bar rather than being aligned with beat 1 in other staves or voices. This exalted central bar position is otherwise only used by "bourdon" notes carrying multiple syllables in free meter, like ...


13

This will just be an embellishment of @user15077’s answer. This is the beginning of your piece as you’ve notated it: Here is what it would look like with a more standard approach: As you can see, many of the notes are expressed as tied notes now. For example, the quarter-note D-sharp in the first measure is written as a sixteenth tied to a dotted ...


12

In practice, off the page, there is no difference to the listener. On the page, or the written music, each measure in 2/2 will hold the equivalent of 2 half notes and each measure in 2/4 will hold the equivalent of 2 quarter notes, which will simply be drawn differently.


10

Time signatures look like fractions, but are not really. I grew up on crotchets and quavers, so I'll use those words, but the American/German number-names drop naturally out of the time signatures. 3/4 does not mean "3 divided by 4", it means 3 times 1/4, or 3 beats of a crotchet. So the piece is "in 3". In all traditional notation (Beethoven, Mozart, et ...


10

You can't do this algorithmically -- or I really mean to say you shouldn't. But as a musician and arranger, there are infinite possibilities to take some material and rework it into a different format. To the specific example of "Take Five", consider the 5/4 rhythm groove: 5 | 1 2 3 4 5 | 4 | e e - e e - q q | For me, I answer the question ...


9

Let's just pick the first bar apart which is pretty much a mess. I'll write down the note durations as fractions: 3/8 1/16 1/4 9/16 (bar line after 5/16 of that, the 5/16 written as 1/4~1/16). This does not look as much like "composing" as it looks like "let the notation program break the mess across bars and fix this up in the next measure". If this ...


9

A bar's duration can be represented using the whole note No, not always! This is the incorrect assumption you're making. A bar's 'duration' depends on the time signature. So, in a standard 4/4 bar, the bar is 4 quarter notes long. (4 * 1/4...see where this is going?) Alternatively, in a 3/2 bar, the bar is 3 half notes long, or 3 * 1/2! So, whilst a ...


9

Actually, in terms of fractions, 3/4 is the same as 6/8. But time signatures are not fractions. 3/4 means each bar has 3 notes of 1/4 each. 6/8 means each bar has 6 notes of 1/8 each. And yes, the difference is in the way you count it: In 3/4 you count 1,2,3 and in 6/8 you count up to 6 and the notes are shorter. The accents change as well; 6/8 is an even ...


9

Yes. In the treble clef it's called the B line, whilst in the bass clef it's the D line. In alto and tenor it's different... Aw, c'mon, it's nearly Christmas. I'm working from the heading question!


9

It's an octave clef. It's telling you all the notes written are actually down an octave. Since the guitar is already a transposing instrument where everything is transposed down an octave, it's essentially showing you the actual notes being played instead of the implied octave transposition. So for simplicity's sake you can just ignore it and play as you ...


8

To find the length in seconds of each beat for any given metronome marking in beats-per-minute (bpm), you would divide 60 (the number of seconds in a minute) by the bpm marking. For instance, if a piece has a metronome marking of crotchet (quarter-note) = 120, each crotchet beat is 0.5 seconds long (60/120). You can follow this simple rule to find the ...


8

My answer would actually be different for your two examples. That is, given no other indication in the score, when executing a time signature change from 3/4 to 6/8, I would keep the 8th note constant, whereas when changing from 4/4 to 12/8, I would keep the beat constant, making the 4/4 quarter equivalent to the 12/8 dotted quarter. But, if the 4/4 - 12/8 ...


7

If you have 4/2 (for same BPM)the half note duration is now equal to 0.5 seconds? Yes. The bottom number indicates the reference symbol used to measure the unit pulse. Therefore, half-notes are played at 120bpm. As others have suggested, almost zero musicians think of notes as durations of fractions of a second. If that is so the lower number in ...


7

These are mensural time signatures. Before I explain their general meaning, I would just note that these signatures should not be used without extensive explanation unless you're notating specifically for an early-music group. They are not often taught outside of grad school History of Theory type courses. Mensural music was composed in Europe during ...


6

No, not really, though it's not terribly common in some styles. I'd say it's relatively rare in Baroque music, for example (or at least it's not notated as such when it does occur, e.g. cadential hemiolas...). OTOH, it's often necessary when transcribing earlier music, due to the later's lack of meter. I think it may have become more acceptable again ...


6

A whole note takes up a full measure in 16/16, 8/8, 4/4, and 2/2 time only. A whole note has the value of 4 quarter notes or 2 half notes. Since how common 4/4 time is (it is even also referred to as common time) it makes sense that the notes name line up with the use in 4/4. In 3/2 the whole measure is represented by a dotted whole note (i.e. a whole note ...


6

In short, no. That slash is just a shorthand for typing; that's not how time signatures are typically notated. Some purists would even say that 4/4 is not a valid way to notate a time signature, because it implies equivalence between key signatures that represent the same fractional value. However, this notation has become somewhat accepted in print ...


6

If we use 'em, it's because they seem necessary to us. It might be that we need an irregular effect for expressive purposes; it might be that if we don't group the notes just so, the lines won't line up properly together rhythmically; it might be that we need them to avoid arriving at a definite downbeat until exactly the right time, and that irregular ...


6

Practically speaking, there's no difference between writing a piece in 2/2, or writing it in 2/4 and halving all of the note durations. They would sound exactly the same. The difference is largely convention and tradition. Marches and upbeat musical theater numbers are traditionally in cut time, but most other styles of music prefer the quarter note to ...


6

The only other exception I can think of is something like rubato grace notes that have no count. Here's an example from Chopin's Nocturnes, Op. 27: As for standard music notation, no other notable exceptions really come to mind.


5

'The correct rest to use in classical music theory when the full bar rest is the semi breve rest. This is always the case regardless of time signature. This is to aid the reading of the score. If you are in a orchestra and your instrument has to rest for five minutes your life is going to be much easier if there is not several rest in each bar.


5

The lower number ties the beat length to a particular musical symbol. N/2 indicates so many minims (half notes) to the bar, N/4 = so many crotchets (quarter notes), N/8 = so many quavers (eighth notes). One reason for using a particular note length versus another is purely for convenient notation. e.g in compound time signatures like 6/8, 9/8, etc groups of ...


5

Slow it down then. Pachelbel's manuscript has no tempo affixed. With the basso ostinato suggesting a fairly deliberate pace, try somewhere between 72-92 bpm. If the shorter notes start blurring, slow the tempo down a bit; if they are dragging a bit, speed it up. In general, the tempi specified for a given piece (when specified) are suggestions anyway. ...


4

Each of these can be thought of as a conversion factor. Typically, you're converting everything to or from beats (which are the basic unit of time in music). If you recall "dimensional analysis" from high-school physics, this is a great place to use it! Time signature numerator = beats/bar Time signature denominator = beats/whole-note (i.e. what division ...


4

Another question and answer give answers for any beat type and tempo, but for the examples above, it depends upon which note length beat is 120 bpm. For instance, a crotchet bpm of 120 (as would probably be used in 4/4), will always give a crotchet length of 0.5 seconds, whole-note length of 2 seconds, half-note length of 1 second, and so on. If, on the ...


4

If you need a two-bar count, the one I'm used to is just a-1, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3 (can also be used for 6/8, depending on tempo) [the first 'a' giving the 'swing, last triplet' pickup if the piece swings, otherwise it's left out.]


4

What is happening is that they change the interpretation of the rhythm of the repeating melodic figure. First you have a triplet or 12/8 feel, where each note of the melodic figure is interpreted as an eighth note (or eighth triplet, if you think in triplets). Here you have four beats before the pattern repeats. Then the same melodic figure (continuing at ...


4

In theory, the exact same music could be written in either time signature, either with the notes being half the (written) duration in 2/4 and then played at half the speed (4 eighth notes in 2/4 taking the same amount of time as 4 quarter notes in 4/4 time) OR with identical note durations and twice as many measures of 2/4. In practice, time signatures ...



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