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23

They are actually eighth note triplets instead of eighth notes. The alternative notation to this would be to group the eighth notes and rests in threes and put a 3 over them like a standard triplet, but it's easy enough to see that you are fitting 12 equally spaced notes in a measure which end up being eighth note triplets which would kind of screw up the ...


19

The eighth notes in the left hand are all triplets. The ones in the right hand are normal. Note how the note heads line up vertically in measure 4. On a purely technical level, this is incorrect notation. But it's something that can be figured out pretty easily, so I guess Liszt either didn't care or wrote it like that for artistic reasons.


12

You need to think of that measure as if it were two instruments playing. The higher of the two is playing a dotted "Β" which lasts for 3 beats, while the lower voice is playing an "Ε" for 2 beats and a "D" for the third beat. It all works out exactly when you look at it that way.


11

1 2 3, 1 2 3, 1 2 is Calypso rhythm. Although it appears it often has a 4/4 or 8/8 time signature, I have seen it 3+3+2/8. Even with a more regular time signature, you may find it notated with two dotted-crotchets (which shouldn't cross over the secondary beat on to the third crotchet) and a dotted bar-line before the fourth crotchet.


9

It's an octave clef. It's telling you all the notes written are actually down an octave. Since the guitar is already a transposing instrument where everything is transposed down an octave, it's essentially showing you the actual notes being played instead of the implied octave transposition. So for simplicity's sake you can just ignore it and play as you ...


8

In the context of Baroque dance music or suites, then there are good reasons to use 3/8 in preference of 3/4 (or vice versa). In the days before metronomes, how the music was notated would be an indication of performance speed. The notation would also be specific to a particular dance. I have borrowed diagrams from Jan van Biezen, who has written ...


8

These are mensural time signatures. Before I explain their general meaning, I would just note that these signatures should not be used without extensive explanation unless you're notating specifically for an early-music group. They are not often taught outside of grad school History of Theory type courses. Mensural music was composed in Europe during ...


7

If you have 4/2 (for same BPM)the half note duration is now equal to 0.5 seconds? Yes. The bottom number indicates the reference symbol used to measure the unit pulse. Therefore, half-notes are played at 120bpm. As others have suggested, almost zero musicians think of notes as durations of fractions of a second. If that is so the lower number in time ...


7

A dot adds half of the note value to the note. Not necessarily half a beat. In this case you have a minim (2 beats) with a dot which adds a crotchet (one beat) Remember dots adds different things to the note value depending on what dotted note it is.


7

Yes, a 4/4 measure can accommodate figures smaller than 16th notes. There are 32nds and 64ths and 128hs and 256ths! There are triples of 16th notes that are smaller than the normal 16th notes. There are irrational rhythm groupings, called tuplets; values like quintuplets (5 notes) and sextuplets (6 notes) and groups that have 7,8,9,10 notes in them,. ...


6

The only other exception I can think of is something like rubato grace notes that have no count. Here's an example from Chopin's Nocturnes, Op. 27: As for standard music notation, no other notable exceptions really come to mind.


6

Marking the score 3/4 for 3 measures and then 4/4 for one, seems to fit nicely. Another thing you could try, is to mark the 4th measure as 12/8 (which works with 4 groups of 3 eighths each). Personally, I think I would choose the first option, 4/4.


6

You can (theoretically) read a score without bar lines, and indeed bars (or measures) and bar lines, in the sense that we use today, are a relatively new invention, from the mid of 17th century. Before that, "bar" lines were not used at all, or were used only to visually divide a piece into sections or phrases. In fact if we go all the way back to Gregorian ...


5

The lower number ties the beat length to a particular musical symbol. N/2 indicates so many minims (half notes) to the bar, N/4 = so many crotchets (quarter notes), N/8 = so many quavers (eighth notes). One reason for using a particular note length versus another is purely for convenient notation. e.g in compound time signatures like 6/8, 9/8, etc groups of ...


5

Slow it down then. Pachelbel's manuscript has no tempo affixed. With the basso ostinato suggesting a fairly deliberate pace, try somewhere between 72-92 bpm. If the shorter notes start blurring, slow the tempo down a bit; if they are dragging a bit, speed it up. In general, the tempi specified for a given piece (when specified) are suggestions anyway. ...


5

While the typical notes are based on divisions of 2 (i.e. whole, half, quarter, 8th, 16th, ect) using tuples you can have almost any ratio of notes you can utilize to split up a measure. Here is a layout of notes evenly splitting up a measure of 4/4 from whole notes to what you could call 9ths: As you can see all take up a whole measure of 4/4 and ...


5

No, the tempo doesn't change based on the time signature. Time signature and tempo are two different things. Time signatures tell you how many beats there are in a measure and how a beat is notated (4/4 = four beats in a measure of quarter notes). A tempo (BPM) tells you how fast that beat goes by (120 BPM = 1 beat per 0.5 second). 4/8 means you have ...


5

Probably. But it can get a bit silly. All these bars sound the same, but you wouldn't want to continue this sort of notation for too long!


4

This could be written as an alternation of two additive meters: 9 + 4 / 8 and 9 + 2 / 8, where the 9 quavers are naturally subdivided in 3+3+3, so no need for triplets. You could also write the two additive meters as 3+3+3+2+2 / 8 and 3+3+3+2 / 8, but this might be an overkill.


4

While mathematically it indeed seems that way, 4/4 and 2/2 are not the same thing, just like 3/4 and 6/8 aren't. Technically, you can perfectly write a 4/4 piece down using a 2/2 time signature, but there are different nuances to each of these time signatures, which make them quite an important bit of information. I suggest you read the answer to this ...


4

A time signature does not affect the duration of any tuple. For example: An 8th note triplet will always take up 1/3 of a quarter note A 16th note triplet will always take up 1/3 of an 8th note A 32nd note triplet will always take up 1/3 of a 16th note An 8th note duplet will always take up 1/2 of a dotted quarter note A 16th note duplet will always take ...


4

First of all tempo is not affected by time signature, however what gets the beat does change as the time signature changes so this is the source of much of the confusion. It depends on how you are using the terminology BPM as currently it is very ambiguous. Most of the time when people reference BPM,they reference quarter notes as the beat which may not ...


4

Intro |4|4|4|4| |2| Verse |3|4|3|4| |3|4|3|4|4| Refrain |4|4|4|4| |4|4|4|4| |2| Vers |3|4|3|4| |3|4|3|4|4| Refrain |4|4|4|4| |4|4|4|4| etc. Well, the intro is like the refrain - straight 4 beats, then you have a little break of 2 quarters, verse is 4 groups of 7 quarters (3+4) ...


4

I would say it's really a 5/8 at bars 14-15, because there is the same musical idea at other places, like in 27-28 (two identical bars, and in each one a descending 3/8 and a ascending 2/8), and for these bars there are no ambiguity: I think the mistake is at bar 99, I would play it as a 5/8 too. Maybe you could check in other editions. About playing ...


4

Yes, that would be 8/8. Mathematically it is the same with 4/4, but it differs on the accented beats. Where 4/4 would be: 1 2 3 4 8/8 is: 1 2 3, 1 2 3, 1 2 like the one in the song you provided.


4

A bit more information is needed. In the 4/4 bar, are the quarter notes the same length as in the 3/4 bars? In other words, is the quarter note constant (thus yielding 13 total pulses) or is each bar to be the same length (the quarters in the last bar are only 3/4 the duration as in the other bars.) Both of these are legitimate possibilities. If the quarter ...


4

As Todd states in his comment, there isn't "one way" to notate rhythms. After all, notation is just a partial representation of the sounds produced, and several may be possible and equally correct. I have an answer over here for more on this. Therefore, the best notation will be the clearest expression of artistic intent. Some guidelines I suggest: Which ...



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