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7

These are mensural time signatures. Before I explain their general meaning, I would just note that these signatures should not be used without extensive explanation unless you're notating specifically for an early-music group. They are not often taught outside of grad school History of Theory type courses. Mensural music was composed in Europe during ...


1

To quote from the competition: those are mensural time signatures. Basically, they are symbols from an earlier time period where notation values tended to be more ambiguous but still more rigid than Gregorian notations. Of the mensural time signatures in use then only the ones for 4/4 and alla breve have survived in modified form. All the others are now ...


1

I read comments in here talking about 5/8 7/8 and 9/8 (with 9, I mean 4+5 and not 3+3+3) as metric structures "developed" and used by some progressive musicians. For somebody trained as a classical Western musician, it may seem so; but actually here in Turkey and throughout the whole Balkan area, including Asia minor (Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, ...


0

Some common ways that the number of beats will not add up to the time signature: (1) the final measure of a piece with a pickup measure will often be deficient (add the last measure + the pickup measure and you will get a full measure). (2) mid-measure repeat signs; usually caused by pickup notes. For instance, a repeat sign after beat 2 of a minuet. One ...


2

There is a long list of styles of music with particular distinct rhythms and time signatures at the Wikipedia article on Ballroom Dance. That is to say that these are competition styles of dance, but each dance has its own style of music that goes along with it. Here is a partial list from that link Waltz: 3/4 time Tango: 4/4 time Viennese Waltz: 3/4 time ...


2

In the Baroque style period (roughly 1600–1750) the rhythms of a number of folk dances from all across Europe were incorporated into instrumental compositions -- at the same time, what we now know as ballet was being developed in France. There are numerous Baroque dances and rhythms. Many great composers wrote famous instrumental pieces called suites which ...


1

Here is a long and detailed list of many Bulgarian folk dances and styles of music (going back centuries) which make use of various odd-time signatures like 7/8, 11/16, 5/8, and many others. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_dances


3

From the Wikipedia article on Time Signature: 4/4: Widely used, rock, country, blues, funk, pop 2/2: Marches and musical theater 2/4: Polkas and marches 3/4: Waltzes, minuets, scherzi, country and western ballads, R&B, pop 3/8: Same as above 6/8: Double jigs, polkas, sega, salegy, tarantella, marches, barcarolles, Irish jigs, loures, and some rock ...


0

There is the possibility of a "rubato" phrase where any number of notes can be written into one "measure/bar". Theoretically this can happen anywhere in a score and may require some type of "cue" to indicate either returning to a tempo/time constraint or establishing one. Example: clarinet intro in Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue


-2

I agree with alephzero that there's no rule saying music need have a repeating rhythmic structure...but written music notation will not "break" the "adding arithmetic" of the time signature. UNLESS of course it explicitly TELLS you that it's breaking out. A pickup measure technically doesn't break the arithmetic either...by convention, it's understood that ...


0

If we are willing to consider performance as opposed to notation, then ornamentation may provide an example. Although ornaments are notated according to the time signature, their performance may introduce an extra beats into a measure. For example, I recently developed a fondness for Chopin, and when I listen to someone like Rubinstein play Chopin he can ...


2

There is no "rule" that says music must have a fixed and repetitive rhythmic structure, indicated by a time signature, that can be mapped onto "bars" and "beats". If there is no repetitive rhythm at all, there would be no time signature, and bar lines might be used simply as a visual aid to help several performers to find the same place. That is not a modern ...


2

Do you think specifically about 3/4, or time signatures in general? Pop, rock and metal are almost always 4/4, and rarely change meter, though there can be exceptions (e.g. Iron Maiden - Number of the beast alternates between 4/4 and 6/4, Oingo Boingo little girls - alternates between 4/4 and 2/4). Great exceptions are postrock and avant-garde metal, where ...


0

If you are talking about stylistic appropriate time signatures you can also add that Irregular Time Signatures are a distinct characteristic of modern music. They where extremely rare before the Modern scene was invented.


6

The only other exception I can think of is something like rubato grace notes that have no count. Here's an example from Chopin's Nocturnes, Op. 27: As for standard music notation, no other notable exceptions really come to mind.



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