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comment How accurate are the pedal indications of Bach - Busoni, solo piano works?
If by "accurate" you mean "Bach wrote them" then they are not accurate; because Bach did not write any. In fact, Bach did not even write many of the notes in your excerpt.
comment Why does the dominant chord contain a flattened 7th?
@leftaroundabout: True, we need to consider the other notes, but it's also often the relation with the lowest note that's most important. Again, to my ear, playing a Cmaj7 chord as C-B-E-G vs. B-C-E-G makes a big difference in how dissonant it sounds. In the first one we have (relative to the bottom note) a strong 3rd and a very strong 5th. In the second we have a dissonant-ish 4th and a weak 6th. In the higher notes the roles are reversed, showing that the relations between those have much less effect. Thus, I believe the effect of E and G wrt B(b) are neglible.
comment Why does the dominant chord contain a flattened 7th?
@jjmusicnotes: I agree with everything except the "you are incorrect" part ;) Are you implying the dominant 7th chord is more dissonant than the major 7th chord? Because that's what I think the OP is claiming, and I don't agree with that.
comment Why does the dominant chord contain a flattened 7th?
Actually, the chord C-E-G-B is (or at least should be!) more dissonant than C-E-G-Bb! At least to my ear the interval C-B is harsher than C-Bb. To hear it more clearly, invert the intervals: B-C (a minor second) is more dissonant than Bb-C (a major second).
comment What are the ways to play chords on black keys?
Could you be more specific? Is it about the theory of building chords with black keys or the technique (like using thumbs on black keys) or what?
comment Where did the British names for different note lengths come from?
I just have to add that neither of my sources show their sources and I am by no means an expert in history so... take with a grain of salt! Both explanations sound believable, though.
comment How do you name chords in 20th Century Music? (Chords stacked in intervals other than 3rds)
@AlexanderTroup: Pretty much, yes. I'm not aware of any system of assigning "real" names to all chords. However, there's the concept of a prime form of a pitch class set (explained in the link in my answer), and these can be ordered systematically and named by Forte numbers. The C-major triad would then be 3-11, which is actually the name of every major and minor triad. Of course, this is probably not what you mean by a name.
comment Understanding V/ii♭9 Chord
Did you try playing it? Because to me it doesn't sound quite right...
comment Max Payne theme scale
I didn't listen to all of it but in the beginning the harmony sounds like standard dominant V (without 7). The melody seems to be switching between natural and harmonic C minor scales (or perhaps some kind of dominant G scale; not so familiar with those).
comment Does this rhythm (dotted 8-16 8 8, hot po-ta-to) have a name?
Looks like habanera.
comment How to know whether a note is to be played with the left hand or the right hand?
@Benjamin: If you're worried about heresy you should know that Beethoven did not write it like that. He wrote no accent, no sf, no hairpins, the slur should start on a different note, and all the lower melody notes in this bar, from A to C# instead of just A, he wrote on the upper staff (suggesting that he did not suggest them to be played with the right hand). You can find the manuscript on IMSLP. In your version the editor clearly suggests right hand for A, though.
comment How to algorithmically find a chord progression for an infinite arbitrary melody?
Most obvious patterns: Only using chords Am, Dm, C, G7, E, and F. (Usually) the chord is chosen to contain at least one note from the pair. Actually I bet these rules alone would produce a very similar result.
comment What is Tempo (Speed): Moderate 4
What is the context? I can think of one place where I've seen this: when there's a piece with many different moderatos (and other tempos) this could indicate the return of the tempo and character of whatever was played when moderato was played the 4th time. Another guess for 4 would be "in 4". This could be useful if, for example, the (beginning of the) piece/part has a 2/2 -feel and one wants moderate quarter notes instead of moderate half notes. I actually think this second interpretation is more probable since you say "moderatE 4" instead of "moderatO 4".
comment Cziffra's cadenza in Hungarian Rhapsody No. 6
It sounds and looks very "Cziffra". So, you could study his arrangements and transcriptions of him playing (you can find some on YouTube at least) to learn about his embellishment vocabulary. Maybe then you can write it down yourself.
comment Is it correct to say that all common chords are built using the major scales?
I'm not sure I understand what you mean by a chord being drawn from a scale. Have you considered such relatively common chords as 1-3b-5-7 (minor with major 7), 1-3b-5b-7bb (diminished) or 1-3-5# (augmented)?
comment What does an “L” shape mean beside a note in the lower staff?
No, the accepted answer is correct unless the notes were written by someone who likes to confuse people with nonstandard meanings of standard notation.
comment Rondo alla turca - bar 55
Is there anything about this in the commentaries in Henle?
comment Why are there twelve notes in an octave?
I don't see why the divisors are important here. Because for example the equal tempered tritone has a frequency ratio 2^(6/12) which is one of the worst approximations (compared to just intonation) in the scale whereas the perfect fourth (2^(5/12)) is one of the best (see the link in Matthew's answer). Another little comment: If one frequency is 200Hz and another is 600Hz then, assuming they're synchronized, they will be in the same phase 200 times every second, i.e. every 3rd cycle of the faster one.
comment Really confused about x's on a note?
Nonstandard markings are usually explained in a pre/postface (or footnotes). If you don't have those you probably have a copy so go find the original! ;)
comment Piano For a Tight Budget
Perhaps a stage piano?