Generally speaking any single note (within the range of the instrument) can follow any other single note. If it is an awkward combination it just requires more skill.
The problems come with chords. There two notes which have to be played at the same time pretty much have to be playable on adjacent strings. They can't be played on the same string (e.g. G and A on the G string) and if they are far apart then they have to be reachable within the maximum stretch that the musician can manage between first and fourth finger for violinists/violists and thumb and fourth finger for cellists and bassists.
For a violinist octaves are perfectly fine, e.g. A on the G string, played with the first finger, and A on the D string, played with the fourth finger. You could extend this up to a tenth, e.g. A on the G string C# on the D string, but anything more is going to be beyond the capability of anybody who doesn't have large hands and long fingers.
On larger instruments, e.g. cello, this becomes even more difficult although a cellist might still manage this by using the thumb instead of the first finger.