4

I'm trying to identify the harmony used in the main theme of Beethoven's Appassionata's second movement, and I would like someone to review the analysis I have done, and help me identify a couple of chords.

Here is my attempt:

+----------+---------+----------------+----------------+----------+---------+-------------+-----------------+------------+
|    Bar   |    1    |       2        |        3       |     4    |    5    |      6      |        7        |      8     |
+----------+----+----+----+-----------+----------+-----+------+---+----+----+----+--------+-----------+-----+-------+----+
|   Beat   |  1 |  2 |  3 |     4     |     5    |  6  |   7  | 8 |  9 | 10 | 11 |   12   |     13    |  14 |   15  | 16 |
+----------+----+----+----+-----------+----------+-----+------+---+----+----+----+--------+-----------+-----+-------+----+
|   Chord  | Db | Gb | Db | Gb(add6)  | Ab(sus4) | Ab7 | Db/F |   | Db | Gb | Db | Bbb7?  | Ab7(sus4) | Ab7 | Db/Ab | Db |
+----------+----+----+----+-----------+----------+-----+------+---+----+----+----+--------+-----------+-----+-------+----+
| Function |  I | IV |  I | IV(add6)? |  V(sus4) |  V7 |  I6  |   |  I | IV |  I |    ?   |  V7(sus4) |  V7 |  I64  |  I |
+----------+----+----+----+-----------+----------+-----+------+---+----+----+----+--------+-----------+-----+-------+----+

Specifically, I'm not sure about the second chord in bar 2 and the second chord in bar six. Which would be this chords and their functions?

3

Your analysis is correct. The two chords you've asked about:

Bar 2: The second chord is ii7 in first inversion; thus, ii[6-5]. The ii and ii7 chords are pre-dominant chords.

Bar 6: The second chord is an augmented sixth chord, known as the "German" augmented sixth chord, and notated Ger[6-5].1 It's also serving a pre-dominant function.


1 This notation comes from Steven Laitz, 2008, The Complete Musician, 2nd edition (New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press), page 680. The same notation is used by Edward Aldwell and Carl Schachter, Harmony and Voice Leading, 2nd edition (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich), page 479. It's not given a Roman numeral designation, because the chord is considered to arise from contrapuntal (horizontal) motion rather than as a standalone vertical structure.

1

It is not easy to identify these chords because

  • we have Bb-minor
  • the r.h. is in bass clef
  • the l.h. is written on ledger lines

Aarons answer is correct (while I wouldn't say that this is not a vertical structure - apart the passing tones in the bass line.

To make it easier you can transpose the progression to Bb major, to C major and to a minor:

  • you will see and hear the ii65 chord
  • play some cadences I ii56 V4 V I (you'll find many canons with this progressions) and you will have it in your repertory for ever.
  • a flat in the l.h. and a sharp in the r.h. (or double flat l.h. and natural sign r.h.) are always hint for a German 6th. Compare this chord with the French and Italian sixth chord and you will have three important chords in your ear and knowledge.

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