I respectfully differ from all the other answers (so far) and answer your question with a strong no, I don't think that any instrument, or any class of instruments, would be consistently preferred by people with a bias for math or abstract thinking. (With a single caveat that I'll explain at the bottom).
The reasoning that some instruments, like the piano, or even the computer, may have some more "math" in them compared to, say, the violin, may be correct on a superficial level, but music is infinitely more rich and complex than that. And to further generalize that being math-oriented makes you more interested in certain instruments, doesn't make sense to me in principle, and is also not observed in practice.
And why not? Because any instrument, from the simplest to the most complex, is amenable to an infinite number of different approaches, and whether it is melodic or harmonic, even the greatest human genius will never exhaust all its possibilities. A mathematically inclined person who falls in love with any instrument, will never run out of expressive options, no matter how simple the instrument.
For example, yes, musical time is divided mathematically, beats are divided in 2 or 3 or 4... but that's just the start, that's just day one. From day two and for the rest of your life, what matters is expressiveness, groove, a good touch, blending with the other musicians, and so on.
The caveat I mentioned earlier is this. Some instruments are easier to play initially than others. You can press the key of a piano, or blow into a harmonica, and you'll get almost the same sound as a pro. On the other hand, getting a trumpet or a violin, or an oboe, to play just a single note well, takes a lot of work. And in the latter case, unless you are forced by your parents, it takes a lot of personal motivation, patience, and commitment just to get started and persist for quite some time through all the initial difficulties, until you reach the point where you start to get your first rewards. And from that point of view, I think it's reasonable to imagine that certain types of people rather than others are more likely to do it.
But once again, I don't think that math-oriented brains would tend to select certain instruments. On the contrary, I think that a math-oriented brain can easily find reasons to enjoy and love pretty much any instrument at all!
Bonus example: we'll probably agree that someone like Einstein was math- and abstract thinking-oriented, and he played the violin.