I am confused on how to rewrite a piece in compound meter. Here are a few examples I have which I need to change to compound meter.
I think I need to just compound 2 measures together?
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Yes, the exercise is asking for the measures to be "compounded together". So in exercise (a), you would remove every other bar line, beginning with the first, to create four measures of 6/8 time.
Just know, the exercise also misleadingly allows one to infer that two measures of 3-time is equivalent to one measure of 6 time. This is mathematically true, but not "musically" true. There is a subtle difference in how a performer would make the music sound.
In 3/16, each beat 1 would be presumed to be of equal emphasis. In 6/16, each beat 1 would be presumed to receive equal emphasis, but each beat 4 (previously a beat 1 in 3/16) would receive a lesser emphasis.
Simple is what it says. Compound is simples joined together - at least as far as this exercise goes. In 2s, 3s or 4s.
The 1st exercise works well when two bars are joined together - the tune doesn't lose its phrasing. But do that with the second, and it just doesn't sound good. Yes, physically, it can be done, but with emphasis every three bars (the emphasised note denoting it's the beginning of a new bar), it works out fine.
'Simple' and 'Compound' (as descriptions of meter) don't mean what the writer of the textbook apparently thinks they do!
In musical terms, a 'simple meter' is one where the beats subdivide into 2. Typically (but not exclusively) a quarter-note beat (quarter-notes split neatly into two eighth-notes). 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 are common 'simple' times.
'Compound meter' is where they subdivide into 3. Typically a dotted quarter beat (dotted quarter-note splits into three eighth-notes). 3/8, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8 are common 'compound' times.
(Actually, 3/8 and 3/4 are ambiguous. Counted 'three in a bar' they're Simple. Counted 'one in a bar' they're Compound. Think about it, before disagreeing!)
'Compound' DOESN'T mean 'formed from adding together pairs of shorter measures'. 2/4 is Simple Time. Join pairs of measures to make 4/4, it's still Simple. 12/8 is Compound Time. Split 8 bars of 12/8 to make 16 of 6/8, it's still Compound.
So the test question is not a very clear one. It's arguable that the examples are in Compound Meter already! However, we can assume they want you to concatenate every two or three bars to make a piece in 6/8 or 9/8, and even if you consider my theory that a one-in-the-bar 3/8 is Compound Single, we can agree THOSE are Compound meters! Maybe even every four bars to make 12/8. (I don't think we need to worry about 15/8 etc. here.) You're also being asked to judge whether, musically, each example does work well when grouped in this way.