In her answer to Liszt's B minor sonata crescendo, user @Madeleine writes:
In many places in Chopin's music, he wrote hairpins ... to indicate rubato rather than a crescendo or decrescendo.
The answer itself doesn't include any further reference(s).
- Did Chopin use hairpins in this way?
- Is the answer to #1 a matter of primary documentation, later scholarship, tradition, or individual interpretation?