# Help with modulations identification: where they occur, and writing Roman numerals

I'm currently a full-time music education major and need a lot of help on a project. The project is over Mozart's Fantasia in c minor, KV 475. We are to answer 20 questions along with writing all of the modulations and Roman numerals. I'm really struggling to find the correct modulations, and this causes problems with writing the Roman numerals. It's really hard to tell if the accidentals are embellishments or if they are actually a part of the modulation. If anyone can help, that would be great!

I am not able to post images, but the score can be found on IMSLP.

• check cadencings, (ii-V7 progressions, vii dim7 and analyse pivot chords. Dec 2, 2020 at 9:58
• So on page 73 measure 36-44 I know it modulates but are measures 36-44 in the key of a minor? I wasn't sure because I'm struggling to write the Roman numerals. Dec 2, 2020 at 14:40
• If so what Roman numerals would you use measures 36-44? Then in measure 45 it modulates once again. Does it go to Bflat major?? Cause there's an f# consistently in measures 45-55. Dec 2, 2020 at 14:49

Duration is a key to deciding whether something is a modulation or not.

For example, in m. 2 the accidental-carrying chords -- and the chords they lead to -- suggest we could be looking at G major. But since the following measures clearly aren't G major, there's not enough to call this a modulation.

By contrast, in mm. 21-25, we see lots of F#s, A#s, and C#s, which comprise an F# major chord. Plus there are plenty of E#s, which is the leading-tone of F# major. Not only that, but there's a clear F# major cadence in m. 25. This better suggests a modulation, especially since the next four bars (at least), seem to continue in the same vein.

• Wonder if OP means, for instance, many bars in key G, thus G=I, then a modulation to, say, A, for say, 8 bars. Do the RNs call A= II, or call it A=I, since at that time the piece is effectively in key A?
– Tim
Dec 2, 2020 at 9:42
• Might be good to mention “tonicization” here as a concept vs modulation. Dec 2, 2020 at 11:39
• @tim - to answer your question you’d need to focus on how it sounds. Does it sound like a II, or does it sound like a I? RN job (like all theory) is to show how the music functions, not stuff it into arbitrary boxes. Tonicizations (and any functional harmony) are easily shown with RNA. Dec 2, 2020 at 11:42
• @jjmusicnotes - I guess if the key sig. stays as original, it would have to be called II.
– Tim
Dec 2, 2020 at 12:10
• @Tim - The key signature of an excerpt does not necessarily reflect its true key. For example, the edition of the first movement of Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata I'm familiar with strips the key signature in the development, even though the development modulates to E Major and D Flat Major, among others. Dec 2, 2020 at 12:49