What you're hearing I would consider as added beats rather than missing ones.
The general term for how beats are grouped is meter. Meter is the pattern of strong and weak pulses that underlie the music -- the places where you might clap along. All genres of Western music tend to have a regular meter throughout the piece; however, in more contemporary music ("contemporary" beginning around 1900), it is not unusual to find music that changes meter.
Changing meter is what happens in "Modern Man". The verses comprise two groups of nine beats followed by two groups of eight beats (or, if you prefer, four groups of four beats).
What makes this particularly challenging to hear is that they often leave out the usual/expected emphasis on the first beat of each grouping. Typically, beat 1 is given the strongest emphasis -- for example, at the start of the first verse. However, at the end of the first group of nine beats and the beginning of the second group of nine beats, no emphasis is given, which obscures the strong-weak pattern and makes the music more challenging to count.
The song would be described as "changing meters", but there is no specific term for the manner in which they do it here.
You might find David Bennett's video about songs that add a beat instructive.