Since this is your first guitar, you'll use to it learn to play the guitar, not fine-tune your sound. Therefore the choices you make here aren't so important because you'll certainly change your mind when you get proficient. You don't need to try to invent "your sound" yet. You're going to learn technique and so a guitar that makes that easier will be better.
To me, the neck is most important. It needs to fit in your hand, and you need to be able to reach all of the strings. Classical guitars tend to have flat fretboards with strings which are super far apart, making it easy for big hands to avoid anciently hitting the wrong string, but making the reach for small hands harder. I originally chose a maple neck and I'm glad I did because it was such a smooth neck that it was very easy to slide and bend. I also chose a guitar with the strings set very close to the neck so I didn't have to press hard which also made it easier. This is something you can customize, but it's nice to have out-of-the-box before you know what you're doing. Thin, strings (guage 0.09) also made it very easy to play. Even though I couldn't slam on the strings without causing a buzz, this combination helped my left hand tremendously.
The first thing I'd like to ask about is the pick-up configuration.
Something like a telecaster/stratocaster will have several single-coil pickups that you can choose from. The further forward one is the most mellow, while the rear slanted one is more twangy. But single-coils always sound brighter to me.
Gibsons will generally have the dual humbucker setup that sounds more mellow to me.
The guitar you linked has a double-set of single-coils at the back. That's pretty much identical to having a humbucker back there.
You can always add effect for distortion, so think about clean players and who you want to sound like. Eric Clapton and Jimi Hendrix both played on single-coils. BB king, Carlos Santana played on humbuckers.
I started with a stratocaster, and got a very clean sound from it which was probably good for learning technique, but I always wanted a forward humbucker so I could have better sustain and an even mellower sound.
The second thing is about the pricepoint of the guitar.
You don't need to spend a lot to get a decent guitar. You probably want to stick below 250 EUR. Once you get below 75 EUR things start to get a bit too cheap to work well. The one you linked looks like it would be 88 Euros which seems fine.
electric guitar is very customizable
Just ensure the parts are screwed into the body instead of being glued to it. That includes pickups, bridge and neck. Ensure there's an unscrewable panel on the back so you can access things inside. Eventually you could replace the neck, bridge, and pickups, but by the time you want to do that, it might be worth upgrading to a better guitar.
a pretty expensive guitar so that I wouldn't have to do much modding myself
You shouldn't ever HAVE to mod your guitar. Adding fine tuners to the bridge is practical so you can do easy right-handed tuning. I might replace some tuning pegs if they break. But other than that, modding is really only if you're doing it as a hobby.
Most guitarists spend most of their "chasing a sound" time playing with different combinations of effect pedals.
At what price do guitars start being considered 'good quality'?
I'd be hard pressed to recommend an exact number. I'm not sure what your budget is. <250 EUR is fine, but eventually you'll grow out of it and want something better. If your sure you'll stick with it and want the guitar to be usable even after you've developed some skills, then 400-700 EUR is probably a good range. Anything over 1000 EUR would be for the case where you know how to play and you know what you need to sound a certain way. I have 5 guitars, have been playing for 26 years, and they were all <600 EUR: Fender stratocaster, Ovation acoustic, Yamaha classical, Yamaha fretless electric Bass, and Takamine 12-string acoustic.
The final thing I was going to ask about was amp choices.
The amp is another thing you'll likely upgrade eventually. First start with size:
You can get amps that run off of a 9V battery and fit in your backpack... don't do this. It sounds awful. I'd go with the next step up: about 20-50 watts is what I would call a practice amp. It's large enough to fill your bedroom with sound but too small to play with a band. To play with a band, the amp should at least be large enough to sit on.
Amps get really expensive when you go from solid-state to tubes. Tubes aren't necessary unless you're going pro and need that sound.
Instead look at the features an amp has. 2 channels is nice so you can jam with your friend in your room (though I've used splitters before). A gain knob is a MUST to introduce distortion. Other effects like tube-screamers, delay, reverb or flange are great. I grew up rocking on a Fender Champion amp. You can find lots of demos of different amps on youtube.
If you're thinking of getting into bass, try a keyboard amp instead of a guitar amp. Keyboard amps lack the effects of guitar amps, but have better low-range that will be necessary if you want to play a bass on it in addition to your guitar.