In relation to the violin (or other string instrument) the specific technique described — using the tuning peg to detune and retune a pitch — is called peg scordatura (also peg glissando and glissando scordatura).
A very clear example of this occurs in Alfred Schnittke's Stille Nacht (1978) for violin and piano. At the end of the piece, the violin detunes and retunes the open G string down to D and back to G again, creating an eerie glissando. Note also the very end of the piece, in which the tuning peg is used to create a vibrato/trill effect. The below recording is timed to the peg scordatura.
In the comments below, it's pointed out that for technical reasons, peg scordatura will only be found on the final note of a piece.
Here are some counterexamples:
György Kurtág's Kafka Fragmente (Op. 24) includes peg glissandi: for example, the section from 27:37 – 28:58 in the below recording.
Stavros Choplaros's "Sonata da Chiesa" (2015) uses peg scordatura throughout. The below images are just two examples from the score, which is included in his doctoral dissertation from King's College (PDF pages 139–150).
In Karl Gerber's "Three Formulae on One String", a computer-controlled violin employs peg scordatura. In the below Vimeo recording, the technique is first used beginning at 1:14.
Gerber, "Three Formulae on One String"